Operation Anadyr: new details

Operation "Anadyr": new detailsMore and more details are revealed specifically the Cuban missile crisis at the moment, half a century later. In anticipation of days the Strategic Rocket Forces mission on "Operation Anadyr" recalls the last chief of the Head of Staff of the Strategic Missile Forces, Colonel-General Viktor retired ESIN.

— Viktor Ivanovich, as the beginning of a large-scale preparation of such an operation?

— June 13, 1962 a directive Defense Minister on preparations for the "teachings in a remote area" of those military units and formations which are brought to the role in "Operation Anadyr." With all of this in the area of the directive "teaching" has not been specified. A few days later, the officers of our regiment, except for the third missile battalion officers with silo launchers and those who were on active duty or in the daily dress, gathered at the club regimental commander of the division, Major General AA Kolesov. He brought the directive of the Head of Staff of the Strategic Missile Forces verbovanii 79th Guards missile regiment in the 2-missile battalions with ground missile system to the "teachings in a remote area" and put the puzzle for reorganization of the regiment to a new state, also caused a general orientation training of personnel of the regiment for the upcoming training events.

Relocation of our missile regiment received the name 514-Guards, in the area of "exercises" began August 10, 1962, when his first troop train headed to the railway station Shateykyay (the Baltic railways) in the port of Sevastopol.

In the night from 11 to 12 August at the station under my direction in a special wagon loaded ammunition missiles of our division, and the day was absolutely formed the second echelon regiment. With it's what I departed to Sevastopol.

Total for the transport of the regiment at full strength (with weapons, equipment, property and supplies the rear) took 15 railway trains. The latter has already left the port of Sevastopol September 6, 1962.

Our regiment relocated to the peninsula of Cuba. On the 5th of ocean dry cargo vessels and one passenger. I already left for Cuba from the port of Sevastopol on August 19 dry cargo vessel "Kimovsk."

Operation "Anadyr": new details— Was there any legend cover?

— We were given a certificate that we are special on agricultural technology. For example, I went to Cuba to process sweet as cane harvester.

— You guessed it-where to go?

— Before sailing ship us odezhku dressed in civilian clothes and took all the old identity documents, including the party and Komsomol tickets. Where will follow the ship, no one on board knew.

Upon arrival of the vessel on August 23 at a certain point of the Atlantic Ocean, which, as it turns out, was located 100 km east of
Madeira, the head of the military echelon Viacheslav Alpeev, our battalion commander, and the captain of the vessel in the presence of a representative of the Committee of State Security of the USSR, who accompanied the train, opened a special package with wax seals that had been stored in the vault of the Master. It contained instructions to follow in the Cuban port of Casilda and permission to announce this echelon of the military personnel and the crew of the vessel. Under the document was signed by Defense Minister Marshal Rodion Russian Union Malinowski and the Minister of the Navy of the USSR VG Bakaeva. So we know where exactly is the mysterious area of "exercise in a remote area."

— Atlantic passed without incident?

— Moving across the Atlantic Ocean (each sea transport commit him for 15-20 days) was nesusvetno tense. Even if a passenger ship is sailing transferred is hard enough, then on the freighter, which was placed in the personnel of the tween-decks in bunk wood planks, it has become extremely debilitating. Exit to the upper deck of the vessel to transport secrecy is strictly limited, and at the approach to the island of Cuba, when the ship began overflights patrol aircraft the U.S. Air Force, finding people on the upper deck general rebuked. The air temperature in the tween-decks — up to 50 degrees, people are left to languish in the heat and stuffiness. The situation was aggravated by the fact that many of the soldiers were suffering marine disease.

By the end of the voyage people are tired, but — to emphasize this — no one complained.

— Is it true that under the palm trees you were carrying on combat duty?

— To begin with, that the concentration of 514-th Guards missile regiment in the peninsula Cuba began Sept. 9, 1962 with the arrival at the port of Casilda cargo vessel "Omsk", which followed the first echelon of the regiment. Our vessel "Kimovsk" arrived in the port on September 12. In the same part of the full 514-th Guards missile Regiment concentrated in otrekognostsirovannom field positioning area (nearby city of Sagua la Grande, Province of Santa Clara) on October 12. The last came on peninsula Liberty rear units with supplies of material resources.

Bringing the 514-th Guards missile regiment in readiness to perform tasks by appointment began immediately after the class missile battalion in order of battle field positioning area. The division commander, Major General I. Statcenko put the regiment combat task: in a few short period equip field position area, check out the ammunition missiles and military equipment for the operation, to be held in the dark for one or two overarching special tactical training with each starting battery and no later than October 22, 1962 step up combat duty.

— So there is at this time of the rainy season …

— Performance of a battle before us was complicated puzzles strong tropical downpours. In addition, people had to tear everything for everyday life, as the missile battalions settled outside built-Fri I shared with the staff of the technical test battery took up ammunition missiles. The highest air temperature and evaporation, as the need to comply with measures to conceal greatly complicates the work. Had to work 16-18 hours a day, seven days a week. The task of verification of ammunition missiles we coped before October 10, and then I switched to the work associated with bringing technology starting batteries in readiness for use.

— Which housed the command post of the division?

— In the districts of Havana (town Bejucal). Its distance from the regimental command Fri ranged from 80 to 250 km.

— How did you "spotted"?

— Oct. 14 South American reconnaissance plane U-2 flying over the western part of the island of Cuba, has made aerial photography of the 1st of field position areas of the 51st Missile Division. Showing films, decipherers Pentagon could be concluded that in the area missile division deployed strategic missiles. Office of the United States, it was decided to increase efforts to identify other areas of deployment of missile units on the peninsula of Cuba. And these efforts have met with success: it was revealed the situation is even more missile units. Contributed to "open" position missile units are very cryptic rather poor capacity Cuban landscape, lack of respect for concealment measures personnel number of missile units.

— And what made the Americans?

— October 22,
1962, U.S. President John F. Kennedy, speaking on television and radio with an appeal to the South American nation, has announced the introduction of "quarantine" (in fact, the naval blockade) around the island of Cuba (500-mile zone). This decision prompted him to establish the fact of the deployment of U.S. intelligence on Cuba peninsula Russian strategic missiles.

— What was the composition of the nuclear groups?

— On the peninsula except Cuba 51th Missile Division was delivered tactical nuclear weapon and 80 nuclear warheads for cruise missiles frontline FCR-1, 6 nuclear bombs for the IL-28 bombers and six nuclear warheads for tactical missiles "Moon". In addition, for each of the four diesel submarines of Project 641, which overcame 23 October frontiers of the American anti-submarine warfare in the Bahamas, in the ammunition had one torpedo with a nuclear warhead.

It must be emphasized that the presence of the Group of Russian troops in Cuba tactical nuclear weapons Yankees became clear only in 1992, when Havana was held in the International Conference on the events of October 1962.

— When you lead a war footing?

— In response to the establishment of Yankee naval blockade of the island, which the Cuban government was seen as an omen of anger, the leader of the Cuban people, Fidel Castro announced the commissioning of martial law. By order of the commander of the Group of Russian Troops in Cuba, Army General Issa Alexandrovich Plieva 51th Missile Division was brought to overcharge alert in the morning on October 23 (though, to perform combat tasks at the time was ready only our 514 th Missile Regiment). But with all this nuclear warheads from a warehouse in the group missile regiments were not delivered.

On the afternoon on October 23 began periodic flights over the battle formations 51th Missile Division of combat aircraft of the United States, which lasted until October 27. On this day, on the orders of the deputy commander of the Group of Russian Troops in Cuba by air defense forces Lieutenant General Stepan Grechko Naumovich a crew of 307 anti-aircraft missile regiment with 2 anti-aircraft missile system S-75 reconnaissance plane shot down a South American U-2 over the peninsula in city of Banes. The pilot died. Situation escalated to the maximum, and the U.S. administration has decided to temporarily stop flying planes over Cuba.

Operation "Anadyr": new detailsOctober 27, 1962 two other missile regiment 51th Missile Division also been put on alert, and the headquarters of missile regiments organized practical cooperation with motorized infantry regiments of the Group of Russian troops in Cuba on defense field position areas. In order to reduce the time to prepare for the first missile salvo of our regiment, which was placed on bolshennom away from the group stock of nuclear weapons, on the night of 26 to 27 October in the assembly crews serving missile battalions were brought nuclear warheads. We prepared for their docking to missiles.

So Makar, 51th Missile Division (albeit in reduced strength) and was centered alerted on the peninsula of Cuba for 48 days from the arrival of the first ship with a troop train to the port of Casilda. By the final on October 27, it could cause missilenuclear kick with 24 launchers, with ammunition 36 R-12 missiles and the same number of nuclear warheads.

In turn, the Pentagon this time brought the group of troops for the invasion of Cuba to the peninsula to 250 thousand people. 5 except the army and one Marine Division, preparing for dropping 16 thousand Marines were on the naval base in Guantanamo Bay (the eastern part of the island of Cuba.) Naval forces who carried out the blockade of the island of Cuba, there were about 240 ships, of their eight aircraft carriers. Attracted to the amphibious operations aviation group consisted of 430 fighter-bombers and attack aircraft deck. On the side of the Yankees was overwhelming military an advantage.

— What was the balance of power in the "nuclear front?"

— As for the nuclear triad U.S. and the USSR, and here the ratio was also in favor of the United States. They were superior to Russian Alliance intercontinental ballistic missiles by 3.1 times (from the U.S. — 151 units, the Soviet Union — 48), on medium-range ballistic missiles reaching countryside each other — in 2.9 times (in the United States in Turkey, Italy and England — 105 units, the Soviet Union on the Peninsula, Cuba — 36), for strategic bombers — almost 3 times (in the U.S. — 615 units in the USSR — 208 units). Only the ballistic missile submarine was a rough equality in the United States — 96 units, the Soviet Union — 80.

And all this nuclear armada was alerted for immediate use. The world stood on the edge of the nuclear abyss.
Made 16 October 1962 South American President John F. Kennedy a special committee of the U.S. National Security Council proposed to begin operation of the invasion of the peninsula Cuba 29 or 30 October 1962.

Anger inevitably would lead to the outbreak of a third world war, with the inevitable exchange of belligerents massive nuclear strikes.
— How did you resolve the conflict?

— The emerging confrontation, then received wide recognition as the Caribbean crisis was resolved on October 28 through political means. Moscow and Washington have taken steps towards each other. Management of the USSR not only agreed to withdraw ballistic missile R-12 and IL-28 bombers from the territory of the Republic of Cuba, and permitting the control Yankees for their evacuation. This nasty Russian side for the procedure as a measure of the agreements. In a sent message from the white houses on the name of the control of the Union of Russian NS Khrushchev was contained not only the assurance that peninsula Cuba would not invade the U.S. armed forces, and Washington's promise to delay the allies of the United States from such action, as guaranteed by the elimination of U.S. missile bases in Turkey, Italy and England. Recently, too, was one of the concessions in which many were unhappy with NATO. But the other way out of the situation were not available — nuclear confrontation and ultimatums are not compatible.

Following the agreement reached by the warring parties to resolve the crisis units and the Group of Russian Troops in Cuba gradually began to be driven to the initial state, and then they were returned to the USSR.

In the suburbs of Havana, in the town of Torrance, is a memorial to Russian soldiers-internationalists. Then buried the body 68 military personnel of the Group of Russian troops in Cuba. Memorial carefully contained by the authorities, the Cubans give tribute to those who died in the performance of the international duty to defend the Republic of Cuba.

— What you personally gave up the role in Operation "Anadyr"?

— I role in the strategic operation "Anadyr" allowed to gain invaluable experience, which should be promoted through the ranks.

For the successful performance of the personnel of the 514-th Guards missile regiment was adequately encouraged. Namely, the regimental commander, Colonel JS Sidorov was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. Government services have received a total difficulties 10 people. I order of the commander of the Group of Russian Troops in Cuba in November 1962 was awarded the rank of another engineer lieutenant.

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