Operation Behemoth

August 8, 1991 the PKK CH K-407 performed a demonstration polnoraketnogo underwater launch
Operation "Behemoth"

For a couple of minutes submarine of the Northern Fleet launched on the Kura test site 16 ballistic missiles. This hitherto unbeaten record of the Russian submarine fleet.

Let us not forget that the very first start out of the water held in our Navy in November 1960, when the commander of the diesel supply of rocket-tion boat B-67 Captain 2nd Rank Vadim Korobov released from the depths of a snow-white sea ballistic missile. This launch has been confirmed in practice the possibility of underwater missile firing.

But because they were shooting our submarines K-140 (commander — Captain 2nd rank Yury Beketov) and K-407 (commander — Captain 2nd Rank Sergei Egorov), did not shoot anybody in the world: first eight rockets in a single salvo, later 16.

***

Knows the Rear Admiral, retired Yuri Flavianovich Beketov:

— First, in October 1969 I was appointed commander of the missile Underwater Boats strategic focus of the K-140. It was the first serial submarine project 667A. In the coming — missile submarine strategic focus. A submarine with a second crew on board was preparing to move to Severodvinsk for modernization, and our — first — the crew took the submarine K-32, and began preparations to put to sea on a combat patrol. I like the commander of the first crew of K-140 commanded the squadron was tasked to:

— cook crew and a submarine to go to sea on a combat patrol;

— cook crew and the submarine to perform the start-8 missiles in one salvo.

Planned dates were different. To prepare for combat service was given about 5 months, and the preparation and implementation of fire — less than 3 months.

For many, the question is why it was necessary to shoot 8 ballistic missiles, not 12 or 16? The fact that eight missiles were "razampulizirovany" during combat service by another crew. For this reason, the guaranteed term of their service has been substantially reduced and they are all subject to the canons of missile launch within three months.

Task simplified by the fact that the first crew of K-140 was well prepared, and this is necessary to pay tribute to the first commander — Captain 1st Rank (then — Vice-Admiral) Anatoly Petrovich Matveyev. Excellent knew their business navigator Captain 3rd rank Velichko, with whom I had known for diesel service on a ballistic missile submarines, the youngest navigator Topchylo lieutenant commander, commander of the missile warhead Captain 2nd Rank Somkin.

I also had, as they say, and even the days of spending the night on the ship, so as not including the main goals I have to gain admission to the independent management of the submarine 667A of the project and confirm the linearity of the first crew of K-140, in other words, its ability to do all the tasks.

Exit to the shooting was planned somewhere in the middle of December 1969, and about a month began to arrive at the squadron representatives from science and industry who wish to take part in this unique test. At the same time wanting to go out to sea were more than 100 people. What to do? So many passengers to the submarine I could not take. By annotations allowed to have in excess of sea crew of less than 10%, in other words 13-14 people. Neither I, nor the command of the division and the squadron could not decide who to take individually. All — honored people, scientists, business leaders, etc.

Operation "Behemoth"

At one of the meetings I requested a medical examination of a designated person, and with the generally accepted indicators suitable for medical training to prepare for light diving: the introduction of the diver diving equipment, the output of the torpedo and others. All agreed, knowing that it can happen in an emergency situation — because in the world of such expertise in launching missiles there. As a result of reaching the sea confirmed 16 people, among whom was included and chief designer of rocket complex Makeev Victor Petrovich.

By mid-December 1969 everything was prepared to go to sea and performance of rocket fire. December 18 (in my day of birth) go out to sea. Senior on board — the commander of the 31st division of nuclear missile submarines, Captain 1st rank (then — Vice-Admiral, hero of Russian Union) Lev Matushkin, which in the history of our nuclear missile submarine fleet entered the pages of many of bravery and courage.

The control of fire on surface ship — the commander of the 12th submarine squadron of Rear Admiral (then — Vice-Admiral) Jora Lukic Nevolin. Hard to overestimate his contribution to the readiness and capability of our squadron. Thanks to his aggressiveness and professionalism Submariner was raised galaxy commanders of missile submarines strategic focus …

…We leave, everything is fine. The weather is not bad: the sea 2-3 points, the wind in the range of 5-6 m / s., Full visibility, cloudiness less than 3 points, and the polar night.

Shooting with a fitted position (in the sight of the coastline and navigation symbols). It took a starting point of maneuvering submerged to periscope depth at low speed started checking system kursoukazaniya. Navigator, led by the flagship navigator Squadron Vladimir Vladimirov began to determine the correction system for precision bearing kursoukazaniya shooting. From the work of navigators deviation depends on the direction of the missile plan.

Graduates of the work on the ground, training tack. Go back to the starting point and lay down on the combat course, reduce the system to normal kursoukazaniya to perform shooting. Requesting permission from the control to the shooting. We are waiting for. Get a "good" for the job, keep the sonar communication with the control, immersed in the starting depth, differentuem the boat with the trim "zero." Speed 3.5 knots. Everything is ready.

— Action stations, missile attack!

Tension built up and, apparently, the greatest — I have.

— Start a prelaunch preparation!

There is a prelaunch: preparatory charging system, the annular gaps missile silos are filled with water, prestart charging, ready to open the cover of the first missile silos "quartet". I give the command:

— Open the lid of mines!

The covers are open.

— Start!

Let the stopwatch. Start first, and then at intervals of 7 seconds will start the second, third and fourth missile. Start by tremors felt in a strong hull of the submarine. I give the command:

— Batten down the lid of the first missile silos "quartet" and open the lid mines second "four"!

This operation is given a half a minute. The operation is ready to give the command to start the second the "quartet" of missiles, but the boat begins to fall for the corridor starting depth. What to do? Creates a situation ripe for the abolition of the launch of missiles, because going beyond the boundaries set by the annotation to the depths of the starting corridor leads to automatic cancellation of the launch and return of hardware to its initial position. I understand that there is an emergency situation: the situation Annotations Management submarine missiles at the
start said that after the start of the first "four" missile submarine tends to surface and must be weighted, in other words to take ballast. But in practice — all in front. I give the command to pump water from the surge tank, but I understand that the inertia of the boat (though displacement of about 10 thousand tons) large and we will leave for the starting depth. I order you to increase speed by adding to the smooth progress of 20 turns each turbine. With all of this takes into account that the starting speed should not exceed 4.25 knots. Undergo a second look at the division commander, he gives the character that's right. The boat holds the starting depth, throw it on the 10-turn, the command: "Go!". Start of the last missile. The commander of a missile warhead reported: "The launch went well, no comment." Hands-on appeal to the crew. I say that for the first time in the world I launched eight rockets in a single salvo, thank you for your service. In the control room and the compartments is heard, "Hurrah!".

A pop-up on the surface, lie on the course at the base. Thanks we get from the control of fire and the message that military field took 8 missiles, the deviation (the center of the grouping of warheads), the first and second "fours" within normal limits …

…I was awarded the Order of the Red Banner.

***

10 days before the death of Russian power from the depths of the Barents Sea, suddenly burst one after the other sixteen ballistic missiles and sped towards the shore. This unique show watched only a few people on board the frigate, drifted into the desert sea … Only they knew that this day — August 8, 1991 — will go down in the history of the Russian fleet and of a Russian general as a day of majestic selfless deeds …

Past Commander of the Navy of the USSR, Hero of the Russian Union of Admiral of the Fleet Vladimir Tchernavin:

— Submarine-launched missiles were considered the most reliable component of the strategic nuclear forces in the Soviet Union and the United States. Maybe that's why the quiet talks about the need to limit strategic arms were selected to the nuclear submarine strategic focus. In any case, in recent years, sadly famous "perestroika" in the USSR Ministry of Defence and are increasingly often heard voices saying that underwater missile ITATION very unreliable media ballistic missiles, they say, they are able to do at least 2-3 starts and so it is necessary to get rid of them first. So there was the need to demonstrate polnoraketnogo underwater launch. The case is very expensive and complicated, but it was necessary to defend the honor of the guns, and I instructed the crew that goal nuclear submarine "Novomoskovsk" (then it was numbering boat), commanded by Captain 2nd Rank Sergei Egorov.

***

Recalls Captain 1st Rank Sergey Egorov:

— It is one thing — a rocket launch from land mines, despite the launch of a mile away from the concrete bunker. Other — run it, as we behold here! — Egorov tapped his neck. — With zasheyke.

Yes, happen that the rocket filled by highly toxic fuel — and the crew nesdobrovat. The tragedy in the missile shaft number 6 on the ill-fated atomarine K-219 ended the death of several sailors and of the ship itself. Less tragic, but with no small harm to the environment over the first attempt polnoraketnogo salvo in 1989.

— Then — sadly grins Egorov — on board were above fifty people of different bosses. Only one political workers 5 souls. Many people would not have followed orders. But when the boat failed and crushed to a depth of a rocket, some very rapidly moved to the rescue tug. Us in this regard was easier to me came just two chief — Rear Admiral gland and Makeev. Well, a chief designer of the ship, along with Kovalev's deputy general by missiles Velichko, which is a credit to both. So in the old days engineers based the strength of their own facilities: standing under the bridge until it will not pass on the train … In general, the others had no on-board.

Rear Admiral Sal'nikov warned Makeev, our division commander, "a single word you say — kicked out of the control room!". To no one kept breaking into the circuit of my teams. We and so everything was worked out to full automatic. At least some redundant word — advice or disposal — could bring down the pace of the already over-voltage of the entire crew. Judge for yourself: to burst open the lid depth of the mines, they stand up on end, and immediately increases the hydrodynamic hull resistance, reduced speed; Turbinist should immediately add momentum to sustain these characteristics turn. All 16 mines filled with water before starting, the weight of the boat rises sharply at many tons, it begins to sink, but it needs to keep right on the starting corridor. Means bilge should fit purge excess ballast on another boat rocked the feed goes down and the nose up, though not by much, but the length of the ship in a hundred and fifty meters of difference in the depth of the rocket and the disastrous impact it will go away, as we say, "in the abolition. " After a few seconds before the start of some of its units cut one in an irreversible mode. And in the case of cancellation of the start of the factory, they are subject to tampering, but it's a lot of money.

***

Even in the most general terms, it is clear that the missile salvo from the water asks sverhslazhennoy of the entire crew. It's more complicated than that shooting in Macedonian — to 2-hand, just for instance. Here oversight 1st out of 100 can cost total of success. And so Egorov more than one year drove their own people at the gym, 5 times out at sea with a crew to work off the main puzzle. From disparate wills, shower drain, snorovok Egorov wove made, assembled human well-oiled mechanism that allowed defuse huge underwater raketodrom is as dashing and smoothly, how to release all of the Kalashnikov assault rifle. This was his commanding majestic work, this was his feat, which he prepared himself relentlessly another Olympian.

And the day came … But first they have experienced numerous inspections and commissions, which are overlapping each other, meticulously studied the readiness of the ship to enter the unprecedented deal. The last arrived from Moscow chief of the combat training of submarine forces of the Navy, Rear Admiral Yury Fedorov. He arrived with vneglasnoy installation — "check and prevent." So it admonished the interim chief, who was left in August instead of the Commander in Chief, who had gone on vacation and did not want to take responsibility for the final operation "Behemoth" — dubbed as the shooting "Loc." Very memorable was a disaster of the first. But Yury Fedorov, making sure that the crew is ready for the perfect job, gave a coded message to Moscow fair: "Checked out and admit." The very same, so it is not got furious telephone message, urgently left for another garrison.

So, the path to the sea was open.

— I imagine you were worried …

— I do not remember. All emotions have gone somewhere in subcortical. In my head replaying only the scheme of fire. One could say was on the machine. Although, of course, in my life away from the final operation "Behemoth" depended almost everything. I even held the little one title. Say, by the result … And the Academy shone only on the result of the shooting. Well, all of life was at stake. Map of the Barents Sea …

Half an hour before the start — a catch. Suddenly disappeared underwater communication with the surface ship, which recorded the results of our shooting. We hear them, and they have — no. The ship was old, it receive path junk. Abstract forbade shooting without two-way communication. But because so many were getting ready! And Rear Admiral Salnikov, a senior on board, took full responsibility, "Shoot, commander!".
I believed in your own ship, I'll show it to the factory perceived, learned to swim in the input line. Believed in their own people, especially in the first mate, rocketeer and mechanics. Believed in the experience of its predecessor — the captain of the 1st rank Yury Beketov. However, one shot only eight missiles, but all went without a hitch. I pronounced the same, even if the thirteen release, then it's success. And we all shied sixteen. Without a single failure. As all of the machine was released. But after a bullet fool. And what about the multi-ton read ballistic missiles? "Capricious fool?" No, rocket very clever, it only needs an intelligent.

Shoulder straps with 3 stars bolshennymi Sal'nikov handed me straight in the central office. In the home base we were met with the orchestra. Brought the traditionally roasted piglets. But how to fry did not have time. We have them later on his galley brought up to standard 30 and 100 pieces of cut, so that each member of the crew got. Introduced us to the awards: I — to the Russian Union Hero, First Lieutenant — the Order of Lenin, the mechanics — to the Red Banner …

But a week later — coup, abolished the Russian Alliance, Russian Order of too …

***

Beheld the creator of this historic recording. On the chronometer 21 hours 9 minutes 6 August 1991. Here, hatched out of the water, leaving the surface of the sea cluster pair soared skyward and disappeared into the polar sky first rocket, a few seconds after it rushed howling second, third … 5th … eighth … Twelve … Sixteen! Congestion pair dragged along the submarine. Perekatisty harsh roar of the cloud stood over the reclusive sea. Suddenly I thought: That's how the world looked in a couple of minutes before the end of the world. Someone referred to this shooting "a dress rehearsal for a nuclear apocalypse." But no, it was a farewell salute, which gave the majestic underwater armada own doomed majestic power. USSR had already plunged into the abyss of time, as podranenny iceberg "Titanic" …

Missile submarine strategic focus 667BDRM

Operation "Behemoth"

PKK CH 667BDRM class "Dolphin" — the last Russian submarine missile 2nd generation, which almost became a concern to the 3rd generation. He created a CDB ME "Rubin" under the general designer of SN Kovalev on the basis of the government's decision of 10 September 1975. Is an upcoming development project 667BDR submarines. It is a double-hulled submarine with missile silos in a sturdy case with a cylindrical outer frames, which is divided into 11 sections.

The outer light hull cruiser has protivogidroakusticheskoe cover. Nasal hydroplanes are located on the cabin and the ascent in the middle of the ice rotated to the vertical position.

Rated power the main power plant PKK CH — 60 thousand liters. s. This is a two-shaft nuclear power plant of 2-tier in the water-water nuclear reactor VM-4SG (90 MW), steam turbines OK-700A, turbine generator TG-3000 and a diesel generator DG-460 each. For centralized management of underwater boat armed ASBU like "Omnibus bdrm," the collection and information processing, problem solving tactical maneuvering and combat use of the torpedo and missile-torpedo guns.

Missile system D-9RM (development of the D-9R) has 16 three-stage liquid ICBM SS-N-54 (R-29RM, 3M37). Rockets own range of over 8300 km, carry multiple warheads personal guidance (4-10 warheads) over-shooting accuracy and increased range of breeding.

Combat service missile 667BDRM may last until 2020.

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