Operation Catching sturgeon. On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol. Part 2

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

On the morning of June 7, 1942 at 4:00 artillery preparation began before the advent of specific German. On the strength of shelling evidenced by the fact that only 600-mm "One" and "Thor" released this day 54 projectile. The position of the 172nd Infantry Division and the 79th Naval Infantry Brigade collapsed about 14.5 thousand shells. Help the 8th German Air Corps was expressed not only in the constant air raids, and the saturation of battle formations of infantry anti-aircraft artillery. To support the coming of the LIV-Army Corps (he struck a blow for the 4th and 3rd sector Sevastopol Defense district) was created by a group of militant anti-aircraft artillery, under the command of Major Miller in the 12-88-mm, 9 mm and 37-30 20-mm anti-aircraft guns. Flak Artillery participated in the training, then led the fire on pillboxes, Russian artillery positions and other fortifications.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

Calculation of the German howitzer 10,5 cm leFH18 leads shelling of Fort Constantine, defending the entrance to the Sevastopol bay. Storming of Fort Germans began in the first half of the day or June 22, 1942. The last defenders of the fort crossed by swimming on the south side of the town of early in the morning on June 24.

After a strong aviation and artillery barrage, the German assault group under the guise of barrage, went on the attack. Defense GRA conditionally divided the North Bay in half. Plan of the German High Command was the fact, that first kill Soviet defenses in the 3rd and 4th sectors (north side), go out to the bay, and then bring the released compounds in the southern part of the town. Because first went to storm the Russian position LIV-Corps in the 22 th, 24 th, 50 th and 132 th Infantry Divisions. German body was due to damage Soviet defenses on the northern shore of the bay and make a bridgehead on the south bank, in the rear of the 1st and 2nd sectors of defense.

In the first day battle German troops succeeded in only one place to hook into accommodation GRA — at the intersection of 3rd and 4th sectors (between the positions of the 79th Naval Infantry Brigade and the 172nd Infantry Division). The cost of enormous losses of the German stormtroopers failed for 7 and 8 June to enter the limit Mekenzievyh heights (mountains). On the third day the battle has put in command of the German battle second tier LIV-Corps — 24th Infantry Division.

June 10 the offensive joined XXX Corps. It consisted of three divisions, the 28th Light Infantry Division, 72 th and 170 th Infantry Division. In the band coming of the 30th Corps acted Tank Battalion 22th Armored Division. Tanks were used in small groups of 3-10 vehicles as a means of specific support for the infantry. In the coming participated and several captured Russian tanks — KV. But in this direction coming of the Germans failed to achieve great success. By June 18, German troops were able to push the compound of the 1st and 2nd sectors GRA to the second line of defense.

Since the beginning of the storming of the Russian command was flip to the city of reinforcements. On the night of June 10 trucks arrived "Abkhazia", accompanied by the destroyer "Free". But the role in the storming of the massive German air group made the move troops and supplies terminally insecure. In the afternoon on June 10, both ships were sunk by German aircraft. Late in the evening on June 12, came from Novorossiisk cruiser "Molotov" and the destroyer "vigilant". They delivered the 138th Infantry Brigade under the command of Major M. Zelina (2.6 thousand fighters with sixteen 76-mm and 12-45-mm guns, eight 120-mm mortars). Brigade immediately thrown into battle — she went to the counter at the junction of the 3rd and 4th sectors GRA. Happy June 13 cruiser and destroyer were from North Bay fire on the advancing German troops. At the time kutsee defenders of Sevastopol were able to regain balance and hit the Mekenzievy height. Then, taking the wounded more than 1 thousand and 350 ladies and kids, "Molotov" and "Alert" went to Novorossiisk.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

Sunk in Sevastopol Russian rusks support ambulances "Abkhazia". The ship was sunk as a result of 06.10.1942, the German air raid hit a bomb in the aft. Also, the destroyer was sunk by the "Free", which hit 9 bombs.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

Destroyer proeta 7U "Free", sunk June 10, 1942 by German dive bombers of the Air VIII-General W. von Richthofen Ship in the Bay of Sevastopol.

June 12-13, the German High Command held a regrouping. June 14 attack was resumed with renewed vigor. On the same day, German aircraft sank the transport of "Georgia" with 526 tons of ammunition and the completion of marching in 708 people. The death of "Abkhazia" and "Georgia" has led to the shortcomings of ammunition. Guaranteed to break through the blockade of the town could only submarines and high-speed vessels with a strong anti-aircraft weapons. At night June 16 "Molotov" and "vigilant" again arrived to Sevastopol. They dumped more than 400 tons of ammunition, food, various assets and more than three thousand reinforcements. The cruiser fired at the enemy's position, adopted by the board in 1625 and 382 of the wounded evacuated and the 17th arrived safely in Novorossiysk. In addition, each day in the city came the Black Sea Fleet submarines.

Yet on June 12, General Erich von Manstein requested a command of Army Group "South" replenishment of the three regiments. June 14th commander of the 11th Army raised the request to 4 regiments. June 16, the first of the requested regiments in the army was focused stein. June 18, German troops broke through to the North Bay.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

Falling bronebashennoy-30 Battery

As of May 30, 1942 the personnel of the battery-30 consisted of 22 officers and 342 sailors. June 6, 1942 Germans used to bombard heavy duty battery guns — two 600-mm mortar type "Karl". The enemy managed to bring down the second tower, it was pierced armor and damaged one gun. On the same day the position of the battery-30 German aircraft took off 1,000 kg bomb. On the night of June 7th Brigade tower effort working under the control of Brigadier SI Prokuda and garrison battery was put into operation, but could only operate one gun. June 7, two 600-mm shells hit the first tower.

During June 9 and 10 battery-30 led fire on the advancing German combat formations of infantry, armor and artillery positions of the enemy, which is wedged in the battle lines of the defenders of the Russian troops in the area of the 4th sector. By June 10, shore battery fire could drive only with 2 guns, one gun in each tower. Engineering structures of the land defense batteries-30 were almost completely destroyed and overwhelmed. June 11, Russian troops tried to do better position to remove the battery breakthrough enemy forces.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

420-mm mortar "Gamma".

The Germans did his best to eliminate the 30th coastal battery, and every day of her languid fired guns. Thus, only 14 June enemy's artillery fired on the battery-30 700 shells. German planes bombarded her with fury, but of success had not, although on June 15 at the battery was made up to 600 air raids. June 15-17, Germans forces from the 2-to 4 regiments supported by armored vehicles carried out coming is planning to capture the village and surround Budenovka coastal battery number 30. With all this broken through June 15 in the area of the farm Sofia Perovskoj group of German soldier killed strip battery connection to the city. June 16 did not work and radio, because in the course of battle were slain antenna.

June 17-30 bronebashennaya battery was completely surrounded by German troops. In areas surrounded by strengthening the left about 250 personnel and soldiers of the 95th Infantry Division, the Marines. In accordance with the orders of the command, in the case of blocking the enemy's batteries, the garrison had to break out of the encirclement by 3 units, the latter had to undermine the position. The first unit in the amount of 76 soldiers led by an instructor of the political department of coastal defense Kalinkin went on to break the ring. Part of the group died, but of the squad managed to break the command and report on the situation on the battery. Other delayed opening. As a result, the enemy finding out the first team, strengthened measures blockade positions batteries and a new breakthrough without outside help was impossible. At a meeting with Vice-Admiral Philip Sergeyevich October (Black Sea Fleet commander and one of the managers of the defense of Sevastopol) was proposed to test the line to break the blockade of the battery-30 to release the remains of the garrison and undermine the battery. June 18 Russian troops tried to unlock the battery. But the attempt was not crowned with success. The Germans successfully used artillery and aircraft, and immediately resumed the offensive. At night June 18th the garrison attempted to break through to his troops, but the Germans recaptured it.

German troops killed by barbed wire and minefields. Crater, which formed as a result of bomb explosions, missiles and mines, facilitated the coming of German troops. The garrison of the outer defensive ring was largely destroyed, and his lungs defenses are destroyed. June 18 guns made their last shots and were put out of action hits the German shells. All external fortifications were captured or destroyed. German engineers were able to get to the first armored turret installation and scatter its garrison grenades. The remains of the garrison batteries entered the underground rooms of the second tower.

In the following days of the Germans tried to smoke the last defenders of the battery-30 from the premises by demolition charges, fuel oil and gasoline. As a result, explosions in the tower installations started strong fire and filled the room with smoke. June 25 battery commander, Major Alexander Jora with a group of men passed through the drain to the river Bel'bek and tried to break through to the guerrillas. But for the next day, near the village of Duvankov (now Verhnesadovoe), the group was found and captured by the Germans. Alexander identified and shot. June 26 assault team made it to the Germans inside the unit and seized the remains of the garrison — 40 people.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

German fighters in the ruined tower number 2 (western) coast of the 30th Battery of Sevastopol.


Manstein again requested reinforcements. To replenish the troops storming Sevastopol sent part of the 371 th Infantry Division, which arrived in the Caucasus for a role in the coming year.

Brand new attempt to break the siege of Sevastopol on June 18 with the transport ended disastrously. Transport "Bialystok" on the way back was sunk by a German torpedo boat. As a result, the supply of Sevastopol Defense sea area during June 13-20 only ensured the completion of 20% of losses of personnel and about a third of the flow of ammunition. In June, the Black Sea Fleet delivered to the city of more than 21 million people, more than 5.5 thousand tons of ammunition, moved from Sevastopol, the wounded about 19 thousand and 15 thousand local residents. Submarines delivered to Sevastopol over 2.2 tons of ammunition, more than 1 million tons of food, 534 tons of gasoline in 1303, and brought the wounded and the inhabitants of the town.

Realizing that the situation is critical, Russian commanders tried once again to use the same technique that brought success in December 1941. In the evening on June 19 directive of the Supreme Command of the North-Caucasian Front prescribed prepare a landing operation in order to capture the Kerch Peninsula. Intended landing aircraft and amphibious landing near Kerch. In the first echelon of the planned plant 32th Guards Rifle Division and three battalions of Marines. But the time for the concentration of manpower and resources, the organization of landing troops have left. After a few days it became clear that Sevastopol is doomed.

June 23, 1942 by order of the command GRA remnants of the 4th sector retreated to the south-sparing North Bay. On the same day in Sevastopol broke "blue cruiser" "Tashkent" (favorite destroyers) and the destroyer "Flawless
." They brought a part of the 142nd Infantry Brigade and its weaponry. In the evening on June 26 in the city for the last time has arrived "Tashkent". He brought the gun unit and the 142nd Brigade and took on board the wounded and 2,300 local residents. The difficulty of breaking through to the town and leaving it reads return "blue cruisers" (has been painted in a bluish color) in Novorossiysk. Starting from 5:00 am to 9:00 directly cruiser suffered continuous attacks by aircraft of the enemy (they participated in about 90 cars). On the ship were dropped more than 300 bombs. The ship received some serious damage, spent the entire anti-aircraft ammunition. Only thanks to the dedication of the crew and help from Novorossiisk were able to bring the ship to the port. Hike "Tashkent" was the latest attempt to break the siege of Sevastopol large surface ships.

On the night of 28 to 29 June, without artillery preparation, under the cover of a smoke screen, part of the 22 th and 24 th Infantry Divisions crossed the North Bay in inflatable boats and dug in on its southern shore. On the morning of the same day or hour and a half after a powerful artillery and air Germans were dealt a major blow from the area Fedyuhinyh heights and Contemporary Shula in the north-west and the mountain-breather. The defense of the 2nd sector GRA had been broken.

Of early morning on June 30, Admiral October turned to Semyon Budyonny (Commander of the North Caucasus Front) with a report in which said that the defense GRA endure another 2-3 days. He requested permission to evacuate aircraft commanders and political composition of the residues of the Maritime Army. Budennyi sent a report to Moscow, also offered to take out anything that might be a complete supply of reinforcements. Sevastopol Defense Command Region has prepared a list of preparation to be evacuated, from the Black Sea Fleet — 77 people from the Maritime Army — 78 people. Subject to evacuation from the supreme command of the regiment commander and above, and senior officials of the town. Stavka gave permission for evacuation.

In the evening on June 30 in a cell batteries bronebashennoy number 35, the last meeting of the military councils of the Black Sea Fleet and the Maritime Army. On the battery-35 was created spare flagship command post, additionally deployed communications center. At night, on June 29 coastal battery aircraft fleet arrived, led by Vice-Admiral FS October's. Somewhat later, the battery got over the management and staffs of the Maritime Army and Coast Defense Fleet. At the last meeting it was decided to evacuate the command GRA aircraft fleet and coastal army. Commandant of the battery-35 captain AJ Leshenko gave orders to undermine the battery after using up the last rounds. To coordinate the last defending units in Sevastopol left commander of the 109th Infantry Division PG Novikov (he was captured and died in a German concentration camp in 1944).

The last days

The system of defense of Sevastopol was crumbling. Day of June 30 was rolled fleet air defense command post. Equipment 2-radar stations were dropped into the sea. Remains of aircraft flown from the GRA Kherson airport to Anapa.

It should be noted that the removal of the high command was complex moral and psychological problem of how to evacuees, and for employees. Removal of the top commanders at all demoralized much of the garrison. People feel themselves not only doomed, and devotees. Because on July 1 there were only a few pockets of resistance, a solid line of defense was not.

Enigma flight was not. Evacuation was in public. In the evening on June 30 Chersonese airfield began landing transport aircraft. At the airport at that time was a mass of unorganized fighter with commanders. There were cases when the planes were taking by storm. Total June 30, flew 13 cargo planes, they have taken 232 people, including October. Landing on submarines was more organized. Yes, and then not come without incident. From the crowd not only was heard swearing, and machine gun fire sounded. She was in front of Ivan Petrov, who was walking chief of staff the Maritime Army Semechkin. Unable to withstand the mental pressure, chief of staff of the coastal defense of IF Kobalyuk came back and said that would die with his subordinates. Submarine L-23 and u-209 evacuated 180 people.

More terrible was the fate of the wounded. From May 21 to July 3, PDS lost wounded more than 55 thousand people. During this period, 18.7 million were able to evacuate the wounded. As a result, in the town of more than 35 thousand left the wounded. Those who could not move without help from others began to gather in the evening on June 30 in the bays and Kamyshovaya Cossack in the hope of evacuation. Apart from aircraft and submarines, to take people used minesweepers, patrol boats, motor boats and small boats. But the attempt to take on the night of July 2, 2 thousand commanders generally failed, the ships were those who managed to get them. On the coast of the Caucasus have taken out more than 500 commanders and commanding officers and 1,116 junior fighter. Part of trying to sail away on a makeshift raft was destroyed by German aircraft, torpedo boats, or captured.

Part of the GRA was able to break through the defense in the mountains and joined the partisans. Bronebashennaya battery-35 was one of the last pockets of resistance. July 1 coastal battery was subjected to a massive raid of German aircraft and artillery fire. During the 35-day or battery shot remnants of ammunition, driving practical fire projectiles (fighting ended) by German tanks at Cape Fiolent, and shrapnel shells at enemy infantry in the Rush-beams. It should be noted that the Cape Fiolent fought pinned to the sea border regiment under the colonel and battalion Rubtsov Commissioner Smirnov. Scarring was ordered to make its way to the battery Novikov-35. Of border guards and soldiers and officers from other units, to find themselves in the vicinity of Cape Fiolent July 1, the regiment was created assembly. They could not get through to the battery. Wounded in this attack, Colonel G. Rubtsov and Commissioner AP Smirnov, so as not to be captured, shot themselves.

Almost the entire staff of the pack of 35 led the fight for the positions of the outer ring of defense. At night July 1st group of German stormtroopers made its way into the area between the tower blocks of the battery and the right team pt. Battery Commander AJ Leshenko gave orders to kill all the equipment and fire control devices and move to the array battery. At 0 hours 35 minutes on July 2 with permission of Major General PG Novikov garrison blew the cellar of ammunition and the first tower. Then, after the destruction of communications, equipment, and fire control equipment was destroyed in 2.30 second tower. The commander of the battery portion of the personnel were able to evacuate the Caucasus. But the defense of underground rooms lasted until July 12, is fighting those who did not want to give up.

July 4, 1942, after an artillery barrage at Cape Chersonese broke into the German infantry supported by tanks. The last limit defense fell and began a general trapping survivors defenders of Sevastopol.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

German soldiers in a battle in the 35th Battery of Sevastopol.

The results

— Ended with a 250-day defense of Sevastopol. Hero City fell. According to the Germans, was seized about 100 thousand pr
isoners, according to Russian disk imaging — about 62.8 million people were missing.

— The Germans removed the large Russian foothold in the Crimea, which riveted the significant strength for themselves. XXX Corps soon sent near Leningrad, and LIV-Corps planned to use in the Caucasus.

— Sturm GRA showed that passive defense (Even with the presence of countless garrison strong positions) can not serve as a protection against the army perfectly cooked. Sevastopol captured front attack, without any tricks and maneuvers. The case decided artillery, aviation and infantry perfectly cooked and adequate supplies of ammunition. Hurricane artillery shells and bombs evenly (and rather quickly) crushed the Maritime Army defense. In addition to the heavy guns, well-proven anti-aircraft guns (first 88-mm guns).

— The capture of a large part of the Maritime Army showed the problem of lack of army and navy have enough transport aircraft for evacuation by air meaningful connections. By sea to evacuate the garrison GRA was just unreal. The German air force so tightly controlled the approaches to the town that the emergence of the Black Sea Fleet would have led to the destruction of more ships. Because of the great distance it was impossible to conceal from the air combat fighter and transport ships in Sevastopol.

Operation "Catching sturgeon."  On the 70th anniversary of the fall of Sebastopol.  Part 2

The destroyed tower artillery mount number 1 35th shore batteries of Sebastopol.

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