The operation, which will be discussed in this article, in Russian historiography is poorly investigated. This is understandable specific premises — the beginning of stateliness Russian war was full of dramatic, colorful page. Because Iranian operation — a joint British-Soviet operation the second world war on the Iranian occupation of areas of the country under the code name "Operation" Consent "" (English Operation Countenance), which ran from August 25 to September 17, 1941, remained in the middle of the "white spots "of this war. But we need to know and this page of Russian military art. In particular, it is important to know in light of the fact that some writers, like Yulia Latynina, try to make the myth of Moscow's attempt to join the Azeri part of Iran to Azerbaijan SSR, waging a "war of aggression" Russian Union to occupy Iran. And this is a difficult time retreat of the Red Army under the blows of the Wehrmacht, when the armies involved Transcaucasian front were very much needed in the European part of Russia.
The main prerequisites that caused the operation were the issues of global geopolitics and security enhancement:
— protection of oil fields Union (Baku) and the UK (Southern Iran and the border with Iraq, parts of Iran);
— protection corridor allies, since a significant fraction of the Lend-Lease then was on the way Tabriz — Astara (Iran) — Astara (Azerbaijan) — Baku and beyond;
— danger statement forces the Third Reich in Iran against the rise and rise of "the Iranian (Persian)" National Socialism.
It should be noted that except for reasons of "black gold" and the communication of strategic importance, even though they were the main reaction of Moscow and London to the failure of Shah Reza Pahlavi, Iran's position on the terrain Russian and British troops, there were other knots of contradictions, such as the Kurdish and Azeri issues. So, right up to the early 20th century Persia ruled not Iranian (Persian) dynasty, and Azeri Safavids (from 1502 to 1722.), Turkic Gadjars (from 1795 to 1925 year). The Turks for centuries were the elite of Persia, so that starting from the XIII century, the forge of the ruling dynasties of rulers, military, scientific and aristocratic elites were Azerbaijani town of Tabriz, Ardebil, Hamedan, Qazvin.
First of the 20th century, along with other areas of life Turkic element played a major role in the political life of the country — in fact, all political parties were represented Iran or guided come from the provinces of South Azerbaijan. Political activity, the financial activity of Azerbaijanis, Armenians and Kurds (Azerbaijanis and Armenians were the most often either half of the population of large cities) in almost all measured life of Persia-Iran. As a result, we can say that the "titular nation" felt like a strangulated.
In 1925, as a result of a palace coup to power in Persia came Reza Pahlavi and established the newest, "radical", the Pahlavi dynasty. That's when Persia was declared Iran ("the land of the Aryans"), and an accelerated pace began to move along the path of Europeanization, "parfyanstva" (the Parthians were Persian-speaking people who made the Parthian power — in the period from about 250 BC. Oe to 220 years years BC. e.) and the Aryan imperial. Prior to joining the National Socialists to power in Germany as an example for the Iranian elite was the Italian leader Benito Mussolini. But the example of Germany was closer to Iran — the idea of "pure Aryan" came to youth organizations and the officers on the spot.
So Makar, despite the strong position of British capital, which played a major role in the Iranian economy, geopolitical bias towards the Third Reich grew stronger. In addition, Berlin since 1933 translates business with Iran to a new level of high quality. Reich begins to take an active role in the development of the economy, infrastructure, Iran, reform of the armed forces of the monarchy. In the 3rd Reich is studying the Iranian youth, the military, which Goebbels propaganda called "sons of Zoroaster." German ideologists announced Persians "thoroughbred Aryans," and they were released by a special decree of the act Nuremberg Race Laws. In December 1937, Iran has been magnificently adopted managing Hitler Baldur von Schirach. For the guest of honor in the presence of the Iranian minister of education in the stadiums and Amjad Jalal festivities were arranged with the role of Iranian Boy Scouts, students and schoolchildren. The youth of Iran was even a military march with the Nazi salute. Later von Schirach Manzarieh visited the area where the Germans showed fees Iranian Boy Scouts. And the end of the visit the other day manager "Hitler Youth" was adopted Shahinshah Reza Pahlavi.
Iranian youth organizations were created in the country on the German standard. In 1939, Boy Scout troops were organizations of mandatory in schools of Iran, and their supreme "leader" was the hereditary prince Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. By the beginning of the second World War, the Boy Scouts have been turned into paramilitary group of Iranian youth, which was the prototype for Hitler's Germany. The Germans were well aware of the significance of education for the future of the country because Reich took an active role in the discovery of new Iranian schools. Another second Reich before World War I opened in Tehran, the German Institute, and in Urmia and Khoy organized a missionary school. In the middle of the 1930s the Iranian education system ran across the full control of the German teachers and trainers, who arrived in the country at the invitation of the government. The Germans began to manage the departments in most schools of Iran, ruled by the educational process in the agricultural and veterinary institutes. In Iranian schools applets are based on German swatches. Great attention was paid to the study of the German language — he was devoted 5-6 hours per week. Children inspired the idea of "superiority of the Aryan race", "eternal friendship" of Iran and Germany.
At the initiative of the Iranian government in the second half of 1930 was established "Organization for the orientation of public opinion." It included representatives of the Iranian Ministry of Education and the Institute of Tehran, public and cultural figures of the country, the leaders of Boy Scout organizations. This organization has established a tight fit due to the German propagandists. For pupils, students, employees of mandatory lectures conducted where promoted a positive image of the Third Reich. In this endeavor, and the Iranian media.
In Germany, students perceived from Iran, so that almost all Iranian doctors have received German education. Many of the students who received the German education, after returning home were German agents exposure. Germany were the main supplier of medical equipment in the country.
In the end, the beginning of the second World War, 3rd Reich took a strong position in Iran and the country is virtually transformed into a German base in the region of the Near and Middle East.
By 1941, the situation with Iran and his "Aryan bias" for Moscow and London has developed further this: there was a real danger that the British capital built on oil and Iran's transport infrastructure will be used by the Third Reich against the Sovi
et Union and Britain. Thus, only one refinery in Abadan in 1940, 8 million tonnes of recycled oil. A aviation fuel throughout the region were only manufactured in Baku and Abadan. In addition, if the German forces broke through North Africa to Palestine, Syria, or in 1942, came to the limit of the Baku — Derbent — Astrakhan, the entry of Turkey and Iran in the war on Germany's side would be a matter resolved. It is interesting that even the Germans have developed another plan, just in case if Reza Pahlavi became obstinate, Berlin was ready to make "Great Azerbaijan", combining North and South Azerbaijan.
Preparation of the operation
After June 22, 1941 3rd Reich attacked the Russian Alliance, Moscow and London have become allies. Start negotiations on joint actions in Iran in order to prevent the invasion of the Germans in this country. They led the English salting Cripps meetings with Molotov and Stalin. July 8, 1941 a directive was issued NKVD and KGB, the Soviet Union number 250/14190 "on measures to prevent the transfer from the territory of Iran German intelligence agents", it was de-facto signal to prepare for the Iranian operation. Planning for the operation to seize the Iranian countryside was entrusted to Fedor Tolbukhin, who at that time was Chief of Staff of the Transcaucasian Military Area (ZakVO).
The operation has been allocated three armies. 44th under the command of Hadeeva (two mountain infantry divisions, two divisions gornokavaleriyskie, Tank Regiment) and the 47th under the command of V. Novikov (two mountain infantry divisions, one infantry division, two cavalry division, two armored divisions and a number of other compounds) from ZakVO composition. Their efforts 53rd Combined Arms Army under the command of Trofymenko, it was formed as a military environment (CAMD) in July 1941. As part of the 53rd Army was shooting case, Cavalry Corps, and two mountain infantry division. In addition, took part in the operation and Caspian Flotilla (Commander — Rear-Admiral Philip Sedelnikov). At this time the 45 th and 46 th Army covered up the border with Turkey. ZakVO first war was transformed into the Transcaucasian Front under the command of Lieutenant-General Dmitry Kozlov.
The British army formed a group in Iraq under the command of Lieutenant-General Sir Edward Kyuinena. In Basra area concentrated two infantry divisions and three brigades (infantry, armored and cavalry), part of the troops preparing to strike at the north — in Kirkuk Hanagina. In addition, the operations took part in the British Navy, who occupied the Iranian ports in the Persian Gulf.
Iran could oppose this power only 9 divisions. In addition, Iranian forces were much weaker than the Russian and British compounds in terms of technical equipment, training.
Immediately with military training and was diplomatic. August 16, 1941 Moscow handed a note and claimed by the Iranian government immediately expel all German nationals from the territory of Iran. Were required to place in Iran, the British-Soviet forces. Tehran has refused.
August 19 the government of Iran canceled military leave, was declared the mobilization of additional 30 thousand reservists size of the army increased to 200 thousand people.
August 21, 1941, the Supreme Command of the USSR reports the English side's readiness to begin the Iranian operation on August 25. August 23, 1941 Iran announced the beginning of the expulsion of nationals of the Reich from its territory. August 25, 1941, Moscow sent to Tehran last touch, in which it is said that taking into account paragraphs 5 and 6, in force at the time of the Contract between the Russian Russia and Iran from 1921 (in their envisaged commissioning Russian troops in case of danger of the southern borders of the Russian Federation Russian ), USSR in "self-defense" has the right to send troops to Iran. On the same day the invasion began. Iranian Shah asked for help from the United States, but Roosevelt refused, assuring the Shah in the absence of the Soviet Union and Britain's territorial claims against Iran.
Day of August 25, 1941 gunboat British Navy "Shoreham" stormed the port of Abadan. Iranian coast guard ship "Peleng" ("Tiger") was almost immediately drowned, and other small patrol boats withdrew with injuries inland harbor or surrendered.
Two British battalions from the 8th Indian Infantry Division under the cover of aviation crossed the Shatt al-Arab (River in Iraq and Iran, formed by the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates). Unopposed, they occupied an oil refinery and a major communication hubs. In yuzhnoiranskom port Bender-Shapur trucks British Navy "Kanimbla" landed troops for control of the oil terminal and port infrastructure of the town. At that time begins to run parts of British India in Balochistan.
British troops were coming in a direction from the coast to the north-west of Basra. They are at the end of August 25 and took Ghasri Sheikh Hurramshehr. At that time, Iran's army retreated to the north and east, almost no resistance. The air was absolutely dominated the British and Russian Air Force, the Shah's air force — 4 Regiment, were destroyed in the first days of the operation. Russian Air Force were engaged in the main intelligence and propaganda (dropped leaflets).
The British and stormed out of the district in the north of Kirkuk. 8 British battalions under the control of Major-General William Slim swiftly walked along the road Hanagin — Kermanshah, by the end of the day or 27 August the British crushed the enemy at the pass Paytak and occupied oil fields Nafti Shah. Remains of defending this line Iranian troops fled in Kermanshah.
On the border with the Russian Union dealt a major blow 47th Army, under the command of General V. Novikov. Russian troops were advancing towards the Julfa-Hoi, Julfa — Tabriz, bypassing Daridizskoe gorge and Astara — Ardebil, about to take control of the Tabriz branch Transiranskoy the railroad, as the area between Nakhichevan and Hoem. It was perfectly cooked army personnel were adapted to local conditions and were training at a similar terrain. Army supported the Caspian Flotilla, because some of the troops moved along the sea.
After only 5:00 of the 76th Mountain Division entered Tabriz. They were followed by units of the 6th Armored Division, advancing on a front of 10 km across the river Arax, in Karachug — Kyzyl — Wank. To cross the tank units assist the men of the 6th Battalion pontoon bridge. Tanks Division, crossed the border, moving in 2-directions — to the Turkish border and Tabriz. Kavchasti crossed the river on a previously explored fords. In addition, the rear abandoned landings to capture the bridges, mountain passes and other principal objects.
At this time of the 44th Army A. Hadeeva walked toward the Kabah-crappy-Ahmed-abad — Dort-Evlyar — Tarkh — Mat. The main obstacle in their way was the Aja-worldly pass on Talysh Ridge.
By the end of August 27, 1941 one hundred percent of the Transcaucasian Front connection to perform all the tasks. Russian troops reached the line Hoy — Tabriz — Ardabil. The Iranians have started polls to surrender.
August 27 for the operation joined the 53rd Army Major General SG Trofymenko. She began to move from the Central Asian direction. 53rd Army was advancing by 3 groups. In the western sector advancing 58th Infantry Corps General MF Grigorovich, the center moved part of the 8th Mountain Division, Colonel AA Luchinskogo and eastern responsible for the 4th Cavalry Corps Gen. TT Shapkina. Opposing the 53rd Army Division Two Iranian actually retreated without a fight, taking up a line of defense in the mountainous areas to the north-east of the capital of Iran.
August 28, 1941 of the British 10th Indian Division occupied Ahwaz. From now on, the British puzzles can be considered solved. On the northbound Major General Slim was going to
take Kermanshah August 29 storm, but the commander of the garrison surrendered it without resistance. The remaining combat-ready Iranian troops were brought to the capital, which had planned to defend to the end. At this time, the British army with 2 columns of Ahvaz and Kermanshah went to Tehran, and advance units of the Red Army reached the line of Mahabad — Qazvin, Sari — Damgan — Sabzevar, took Mashhad. After that point it was not put up any resistance.
— Under pressure from the British envoys, and the Iranian opposition, on August 29 the Shah Reza Pahlavi, said the government's resignation, Ali Mansur. It was created a new government of Iran led by Ali Furuki, the same day truce was signed with Britain, and on August 30 with the Russian Union. September 8 agreement was signed, which determined the occupation zone between with 2 majestic powers. The Iranian government has pledged to expel all the people of Germany and other allies of Berlin, stick to the serious neutrality and does not interfere with military transit of the anti-Hitler coalition.
September 12, 1941 British salting in the Union Cripps initiate discussion between London and Moscow, the new head of Iran's candidacy. The choice fell on the son of the Shah Reza Pahlavi — Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. This figure is all arranged. September 15 allies sent troops into Iran, and on September 16 Reza Shah was obliged to sign the abdication in favor of the offspring.
— The military operation in the main lesson was frisky strategic Fri, objects. This confirms the level of losses: 64 killed and the wounded British, about 50 dead and the wounded one thousand, unhealthy Russian fighters, about 1 million dead Iranians.
— Soviet thinking about the development of their own in the Iranian direction of success — in the Russian zone of occupation were made by two municipalities — Republic of Mahabad (Kurdish) and southern Azerbaijan. Russian troops were stationed in Iran until May 1946 to counter a possible attack from Turkey.
T-26 tanks and armored cars BA-10 in Iran. September 1941.
On the "occupation" of Russian Union of Iran
In 1-x, Moscow had the legal right to do so — had a contract with Persia from 1921. In addition, a war of aggression, in fact, was not addressed issues of geopolitics, the protection of strategic areas of communications. After the war, the troops were withdrawn, Iran has become the de-facto independent, but in reality, the Anglo-American doll until 1979. Moscow has no plan "Sovietise" Iran and attach it to the Soviet Union.
In-2, the invasion was coordinated with Britain and implemented together with its armed forces. On the "aggressive" war by the British did not they say, mucky water the only Stalin's USSR.
B-3, Stalin was a man who possessed a rare brain, which is why the Soviet Union was obliged to keep a few armies in Iran and on the border with Turkey. There was a danger that the Union would strike the Anglo-French group in alliance with Turkey or Turkey in alliance with the Third Reich. This threat has been from the time of the Russo-Finnish War, when Paris and London have developed plans to attack the Soviet Union. Including the attack on Baku.