Operation Jubilee

Actions started in 1942 is not in favor of the anti-Hitler coalition. 3rd Reich was at the zenith of his own glory, his troops advanced deep into the Soviet Union deeply, developed operation for summer offensive in the Caucasus. In North Africa, Rommel successfully drove out the 8th British army toward Egypt. Meanwhile, the Allied commanders are developing plans for large-scale amphibious operations, clearly realizing that without landing on the continent Germany can not win. To check on the strength of the German Atlantic Wall and testing of capturing a large sea port for the upcoming supply group have landed in England began to develop "Operation Jubilee", the aim of which was to capture the port of Dieppe.

This place was not chosen by chance. British command has chosen a place of "trial of strength" less protected area off the French coast. The purpose of "Operation Jubilee" was elected the French port of Dieppe, with its shipyards and docks located near the coastal artillery batteries. Strategic or even tactical value of this operation had not. In case of success the allies simply did not have the strength for its development. Landed parts were to perform their tasks and then retreat. Division who took part in the operation were well equipped and were armed with the latest technology. Tanks "Churchill" Mk I and Mk III, Engineering and Technology razgraditelnaya and amphibious transports earlier in the fighting did not participate. In fact, the whole operation was an excellent exercise, only in their opponent was the most real.

In July 1942, the plan of operation was quite developed. The backbone of disembarking troops were to form part of the 2nd Canadian Division, a division which has started from May to conduct a rich preparation for amphibious operations with the introduction of amphibious transports and amphibians on the peninsula of Wight. Operation "Jubilee" was to be held with the support of 74-fighter squadrons and a small number of medium bombers. Prior to the surgery revealed a photo reconnaissance aircraft defenses the Germans, but could not reveal camouflaged artillery positions.

The attack on Dieppe was accomplished August 19, 1942. Forces troops out to sea from British ports between 5 and Nyuhevenom Soutgemptonom. Landing of the Allies in 1075 included the British Commandos, 50 U.S. Rangers, his main force was the 4963 infantryman from the 2nd Canadian Division. The composition of troops entered the tanks of the 14th Tank Regiment — 30 tanks "Churchill", 7 armored cars "Dingo" and one single track carrier "Bren". Navy allocated for the operation of 8 destroyers, 19 support vessels and 200 landing barges. Overall command of the operation carried out Major General Roberts.

"Operation Jubilee"

Plan of operations meant carrying out attacks in five different points on the front length of 16 km, which defended parts of the 302 Infantry Division Germans and individual units of coastal defense. In contrast to the perfectly cooked invasion forces (all fighters commandos had previously participated in subversive actions, and Canadian soldiers have been trained saturated) German units were composed of reservists are not younger than 40 years who underwent the training everyday.

The main idea of the operation meant four flanking attacks, which were to take place half an hour before the decisive assault on the town. Canadian Infantry Division supported by tanks were to storm the Dieppe Puarville and Pua from the front, while the British Commandos had to put down the shore batteries in Bernevalle and Vargenville.

By 03.35 am on 19 August convoy of troops was referring to the shoreline, where it was planned to land, ships with troops apparently unnoticed by approaching the ultimate goal of their own. But suddenly began firing. On the left flank of the main forces commando squad at No. 3 nose to nose collided with the German courts near Bernevalya. In a matter of Minutka across the German defense line sounded the excitement. The element of surprise was lost.

Despite this, on the right wing commando squad number 4 acted well. It is time landing on the store, detachment at 5:40 approached the main object of attack from his own 2-trends. At 6:07 his men disarmed the German machine-gun nests and by 6:30 stormed the German artillery battery, charges laid and successfully killed all the guns. By the 7:30 squad commandos dropped onto transports and went into working the way. On the left, a commando squad number 3 came out of the battle with the German courts was very absent-minded, and they set-sparing could only fit 17 fighter and 3 officers. And these forces was enough. The detachment is so actively fired his target — the battery Goebbels — from machine guns and sniper guns, that she was never fired by members of the main assault on Dieppe. Fulfilling its purpose, the saboteurs successfully retreated. But despite the success of the 2-private shares Commandos, Canadian infantry units to understand the full tragedy. Germans possessed or not some intelligence information about "Operation Jubilee" (and all have reason to believe that still had), they were able to predict the variation in the Dieppe landing Bank and the German thrift ready for the meeting.

Equipped with hidden machine guns nests were kept under fire every meter on the approaches to them, fence rows of Stitching wire stretched across the shore. When the surviving soldiers of the first wave of landing began to dig into the sand directly on the beach, the Germans began to fill up their mortar shells with such precision that the attackers disappeared last doubts on the level of training of the German defense. German snipers calmly "shot" of all who have tried to give orders, the morning did not survive the landing of any one of the senior commanders of the number of junior officers and NCOs to live there were only a few. The battle came down to a separate series of daring feats of individual groups of soldiers who quickly found themselves cut off from the main force.

"Operation Jubilee"

Storming of the port city of Dieppe has stalled in the shallow water and most fell on the sandy beaches. Royal Hamilton and Essex Scottish regiments bore the brunt of the fire Germans, and just magic that anyone among them could not even go back home and get a German POW camp. Tank and amphibious transports, which tried to support the infantry fire, met fierce resistance as the time to get out from the cover of a smoke screen, and the tanks were destroyed one after the other, almost before he could move down the gangplank. Despite this, 27 tanks were able to reach the shore, and 6 were able to break through the wire and other obstacles and climb the city's waterfront. One of the tanks went up the stairs casino, and three others went along the promenade, snapping fire and suppressing the German defense items until such time as the tanks do not run out of ammo. In the end, all the tanks were hit, and the members of the crew were killed.

Not until the end of clarifying the situation, Major General Roberts gave the order to retreat, and the last of the troops did not have time to plant on
saving and turned back to the UK. General retreat began at 11:00 am and lasted a day or up to 14 hours. Always carry out "Operation Jubilee" over the landing site was a continuous air battle, in which a 2-sides took part around 945 aircraft. The British lost 106 machines in the air, the Germans — 48.

Of the 4963 Canadian fighter involved in the operation, 3367 were killed or taken prisoner, the British Commandos were not counted 275 people. The British Navy destroyer lost 33 landing barges and lost in killed 550 people. General loss of Germans were only 561 men killed and wounded.

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