Oprichnina — saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?

Oprichnina - saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?Oprichnina — one of the misty pages of history of Russian statehood. Assessment of this phenomenon changed over the centuries and up to the present day or a single view of the importance oprichniny for the Russian land and the people did not work out. Russian vision of the personality of Ivan the Terrible and the estimate of the period of his rule is fairly well known, as well as the assessment of the existence of the separation of a number of recognized pre-revolutionary historians. Interest are the current research and reporting on the designated dilemma. Some of the work, all are also based on the position of Russian history, while others offer based on the evaluation of the pre-revolutionary period, more specific, and others, very occasionally, offering new interpretations of events long since past days.

Ivan IV the first in December 1564, along with his own family went on a pilgrimage. Betrayed by the 1st of its Kurbskii governor, the governor really sure what method of peaceful resistance to reverse the boyars he fails. Stealther and farsighted politician perfectly aware of what the reaction of Muscovites in his open letter of abdication. In it, he vividly described the betrayal authoritative and influential boyars and said he would not reign over lust, fear komplotov. As a result withstand the rigors of elite was obliged to ask him to come back and agree to all the conditions imposed.

Upon returning governor claimed to recognize his right to punish and pardon, and also organized Oprichnina zemshchina. Notwithstanding the ancient etymology of the word, the definition oprichniny invested new value. Since then, the Government has instituted their lands separated from the effects of a large feudal nobility, belonging to the genus of Rurik. The structure oprichniny includes the most affluent and cereal land, which evicted the sculpture king face. Sometimes such relocation was of disposition of armed clashes, during which they themselves were killed guardsmen and resettled. Descriptions of encounters are quite bright in the annals since. Some actions are treated as bloody executions, but can not refer to them as such. In fact all members of the Rurik dynasty had troops fighting slaves, sometimes up to several hundred people, because the eviction was unsafe prototype event for both sides of confrontation. Knyazhichi moved on to their latest zemshchina are often outskirts of the country, save where its impact could not. More insecure of the possible contenders for the Russian throne of Ivan the Terrible frankly destroying what he vigorously promoted the new service people.

Oprichnina - saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?
Vasily Khudyakov, "guardsmen and boyars"

A common description of the guardsmen as equestrian rider, dressed in a dark some clothes and renounced family and devoted only to the king, now also controversial. The actual existence of recognizable attributes in the form of a dog's head and a broom in doubt. So, there is the idea that the broom was a wool brush and really present symbolizing remedy for getting rid of the country from treason. About the availability of a dog's head submission researchers crawl. Some insist that the seat pritorachivali cut off part of the slaughtered animal, but to provide for themselves constant finding the person next to rotting corpse symbolism is difficult. Others believe that the dog's head less than fiction, which has its own purpose of further disfigure the image of guardsmen in the eyes of posterity. Still others hold the idea that the guardsmen were on their own clothes image dog's head. Unfortunately, one of the reliable sources and very exciting — oprichniny founding charter, to the present day or not available and has not been investigated, although kept in the municipal archives.

Oprichnina - saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?
The guardsmen. Painting NV Nevrev (1568)

From time to time description of the guardsmen limited to light the low side of human nature, but it does not correspond to reality. At the very beginning of the formation of its own loyal troops, the governor gave preference to a professional, loyal and intelligent young people who are not related to the disgraced reputable names. The following Oprichnina degraded, resulting in and was abolished. Now being expressed views that led Stern antiudelnuyu war. But this position denies the work Karavashkina and Yurganov to what is indicated that the allegations of antiudelnoy war is nothing else as a late scientific modernization related to the development of society. In his view, led a harsh war not against the principalities and the existing order, he fought his absolute power, equal to the power of God on earth, eliminating as it seemed unsafe rivals. Figure out all the implications of oprichniny ruler could not because the society of that period was a different world view. All executions, for example, were one way or another connected with the Horrible tribunal and were apocalyptic color. Alignment of researchers due to the countless It is reasonable and deserves attention.

In his work one of the researchers oprichniny XXI Century A. FURSOV illuminates it in a completely different light. So, as he refers to the circumstances of the existence of a symbiosis of power of feudal princes and boyars, nurtured by the Golden rule. According to the views of the researcher at the time of the Mongol Khan authorities, local rulers were obliged to seek the support of large landowners and held (boyars) in order to obtain not only a shortcut on the principality, and save it, and claim to be the governor of the brain. Dual Monarchy phenomenon in almost all the influence of Byzantium is not justified, and the existence of fragmented country as the Mongol ulus. After the overthrow of the yoke of the majestic Prince increasingly claim to absolute power, but to preserve the previously lucrative combination that made no sense. Adding to the blood of the eternal blood Byzantine Rurik dynasty by marriage of Ivan III and Sophia Palaeologus, in a very controversial beliefs creator of the study, only the result is bordered by a long exposure of the Horde. So the result FURSOV calls "avtosubektnoe rule 'eagerness to him in throughout the life of the Russian country.

Oprichnina - saviors of the fa
therland or the minions of the Antichrist?
Andrew Ryabushkin, "John Stern with approximate" (Perhaps it again here about the moment when John Stern led oprichnina army destroy Pskov, and in front of the city met him blessed Nicholas Salos with a piece of raw meat and denounced him in bloodlust.)

World view fascinating but controversial because only stick to this point of view it is not necessary. We can not agree with the assessment of such well-known and pochetaemogo historian Karamzin, also agreeing with him Ivaylovskogo and Kostomarov that Oprichnina had its own premise just madness of Ivan the Terrible. In so diversified decision of the Russian Tsar was a powerful political and financial background, and madness attributed to the harsh ruler, not tied to his ability to foresee the situation and to predetermine the action. Evaluate the introduction and oprichniny zemshchina as a progressive measure, as did Joseph Stalin, and not worth it. The guardsmen would not be the rescuers of the fatherland, because first positive experience of their existence, soon gave way to outright terror and tyranny, which caused severe crisis. Initially, strong and obedient army of the king, will destroy the real danger and entered the path of torture of defenseless victims, dedicated his fate.

Abolished Oprichnina Ivan the Terrible himself after ascertained its futility. In 1571, after the defeat inflicted on the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray, the governor was convinced that the guardsmen completely lost their fighting ability. Most of them just was not the place to fight. Oprichnina legally ceased to exist, but the areas transferred to private ownership of severity, were for him and were called serf. Now former guardsmen were called serf.

Oprichnina - saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?
Peter Mikhailov, "Metropolitan Philip St. John admonishes the Terrible"

Assessing Oprichnina should lead those of its results. Most of the historians agree in outlook, that the consequence of its existence was to enhance the centralization of power and the undermining effects of large feudal nobility in the face of the princes of the Rurik dynasty (princes). In addition, by keeping to the treasury of the property left disgraced increase the economic power of the king. It should be understood that the first Severe directed their anger at the richest feudal able to give him not only the military, and economic resistance. But the overthrow of princes from the heights of power and led to the degeneration of the elite. More educated and noble families were destroyed, and a long tradition torn down. Logically, what is happening around resembled the coming of the Antichrist. The consequence has been the development of oprichniny slave thinking, birth sparks distrust of the king, that in the coming identified the possibility of impostors. Serfdom was quite stuck in their own most ruthless form — serfdom, by introducing the forbidden years.

Oprichnina was for the country as a significant phenomenon that the consequences track down a few more centuries. Now there are studies that promote the idea that in modern politics and statehood has its echoes. Large research oprichniny, unfortunately, a little hard, but her eyes are versatile because a specific answer to the question of whether it was a positive decision of Ivan the Terrible for the Russian people or not, look unrealistic.

The creator of the true publication held view that Oprichnina had a faster negative impact on government. Despite the temporary increase in the power of the king, the consequences of his policies have resulted in a profound political crisis, known in the history of Troubles. Long terror authoritative delivery destroyed virtually all of the then elite of society, creating a fertile ground for the emergence of impostors. Fast-paced crisis has put the Russian government to the brink of extinction, which is allowed only to avoid incipient national association.

Oprichnina - saviors of the fatherland or the minions of the Antichrist?
Grigory Sedov, "Ivan the Terrible and Malyuta Skuratov"

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