Neanderthals were the sailor's soul
40,000 years ago the human race was represented by two biological species — Homo neandertalensis and Homo sapiens. Particular differences between them were not, though, judging by the analysis of DNA, they could not have common descendants. Neanderthals were a different structure of the skull, but they have developed a primitive social institutions, and they took possession of manual labor. Two kinds of more or less peacefully co-existed, but then something happened that until now scientists can not explain. Neanderthals disappeared from the face of the earth, leaving fellow human beings alone. It is time to answer the question about the causes of extinction.
The fate of the Neanderthals, who were named for the village Neandertal near Düsseldorf, where in 1856 were the first to find the remains of our closest relative — the problem is not only historical. The answer to the question of why so extinct Neanderthals like us, it is extremely important for the understanding of the threats posed by the biosphere for the modern man. If so easily, with little or no resistance from the planet disappeared one kind of person, then do not wait to the same end and the other of its kind — Homo sapiens? Especially in terms of biological Homo sapiens reached its peak, as once it has reached a Neanderthal …
Neanderthals tried to decipher the drama team of archaeologists, anthropologists, geologists, climatologists, led by Professor van Andel Terda of Cambridge. Scientists decided to compile an extensive bank of biological, ecological and sociological data that relate to the Middle Paleolithic period 20-40 thousand years ago. In that distant time humanity is in the Stone Age, and was armed with only two tools — ax and scraper. Caveman was not so wild and dark. He buried relatives and decorated graves with tombstones. Neanderthal caring for the sick, was able to obtain and maintain fire, owned collective hunting methods and raise children. Houses he did not build and was not engaged in farming. Judging by stone tools have been developed Neanderthal hand and he could connect the tips of two fingers, which is important for fine manipulation. But to say Neanderthal could not. Although the hyoid bone he had, and brain volume was greater than the ancestor, Heidelberg man, and a relative of Homo sapiens. Summed up the undeveloped frontal lobes.
Also, for the first time, scientists have traced the migration paths of the two species of hominids. As well as using modern climate models and radiometric dating sites of ancient man. There were studied 400 archaeological sites of ancient man in Europe.
The most common version of the disappearance of Neanderthals comes down to the fact that they were destroyed by competitors. Why not — the ancient people of all kinds were cannibals, especially loved to eat strangers. But it is physically stronger Neanderthals were our direct ancestors. Their muscles was developed as never dreamed current Olympic champions. The most important thing is that in the next century, none of the generations of bloodthirsty conquistadors, who had a much more sophisticated tools of destruction of their own kind, failed to bring the face of the Earth or one race or one nation.
Neanderthals lived safely on Earth about a quarter of a million years. In Europe, there is a Neanderthal ruled unchallenged hundreds of thousands of years. Only at the end of this period, by historical standards, suddenly, he has a competitor — a reasonable man, who moved here from Africa. Genetically, the closest relative of our ancestors are modern citizens of Tanzania and South Africa. At the same time Europe fell severe ice age. And Neanderthals flourished race to adapt to new circumstances could not.
Darwin's theory of evolution to explain the need to succumb to these explosive processes, although they play a fundamental role in the history of the planet. Only the methods of the theory of catastrophes and synergy can explain how the self-organizing system, which is located near the boundary of stability, can turn into an unstable state due to the smallest impact. The evolutionary fate of the villain would have it, the Neanderthal was on top of his historic ascent. How, by the way, before this happened to the dinosaurs. A small blow — and lost the ability to exchange information with the environment the system is rapidly degraded. Homo sapiens, who also stopped biological evolution, while helping out another, invented his own evolution — social.
Group Terda Van Andel concluded that Neanderthals did not have adequate clothing to withstand the cold snap. 70,000 years ago the global cooling. For a generation change was imperceptible, the average temperature fluctuated, but on the scale of centuries began changing flora and fauna. Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons who have reached their evolutionary peak, had no protection from the new factors. With the advance of glaciers, they began to retreat to the south of Europe. According to archeological finds, during this period the ancient man made, apparently, out of despair, attempts to interbreeding. But biology is not fooled: this breed was doomed. 30,000 years ago the temperature dropped to minus 10 degrees. That Neanderthals are not sustained. Last Neanderthal was found in the Pyrenees, age 29 000 years. Physical data are impressive: height — about 180 cm, weight — under 100 kg. According to some accounts, Neanderthals lived in Europe until the XVII century. A "Bigfoot" found in various unexpected places until now, but it looks like a legend.
And at the Cro-Magnons, who outnumbered relatives in the social organization and the ability to adapt to life, according to the excavations at sites of this period, except for scrapers and choppers, new weapons — spears, fishing nets, as well as the first cross-linked with each other skins, that is fur. Apparently, with the means of mass communication in the Stone Age fared no better. Neanderthals about saving inventions do not know, spoiled life, or for yourself to think of what could and huddled, doomed, by the fire. Neanderthals were aristocrats Stone Age — descendants, like the Bourbons. A man was left an orphan.
It is said that this is not a sailor gets cold. Seafarer is fresh. When a sailor is very fresh, it freezes. In this regard, the Neanderthal, let him into the sea never came out — a real sailor. And his unfortunate voyage — a warning to mankind. Even now, there are many primitive peoples, as well as environmental sense of social movements, who believe that any technique depletes the human spirit. Maybe Neanderthal also thought that the nature of his experiences to strengthen the spirit and will. And the real Neanderthal, as a sailor, met the cold without fear, bitterness and regret …
See also: Why do penguins do not fly, ancient artifacts.