Similar incidents were the stimulus for the upcoming production of this type of technology tools, including through the deployment of the next R & D in this area.
In the United States, the development of a promising rocket guns tactical mission have been intensively engaged in relatively recently. Launched in 1972, R & D of SLCM were conducted with bolshennymi delays that sought to explain the fact that the management of this type of weapon has since been sufficiently advanced missile deviated from the course and did not reach the required accuracy.
Since 1985, thanks to the significant concentration of money and scientific potential and production capacity, the United States took a leading position in the West in the development of the KR air and sea-based.
Describing the arsenal SLCM, manufactured and adopted the American Armed Forces as long should see that the vast majority of them were performed in the nuclear option, which was caused by the requirements of the state of U.S. military strategy in the criteria for the existence of the bipolar world. Only the first 1987 military-industrial complex (MIC) United States, most own was reoriented to the creation of conventional SLCM, which contributed to the actions that have taken place in the USSR in the late 80's. The military and political control of the United States approved the implementation of several programs at once KR sea or air, and re missiles armed with nuclear warheads, in the everyday.
Specifically, the U.S. military industrial complex efforts have focused on increasing the production rate of 3 basic options for sea-based CD-type "Tomahawk» Block II, which is assigned an index BGM-109:
• BGM-109B — antiship (TASM — Tactical Anti-Ship Missile) — designed for surface ship weapons;
• BGM-109C — for attacks on ground targets with a unitary warhead combat (BGCH, TLAM-C);
• BGM-109D — for attacks on ground targets, the automobile cluster warhead (BC).
In turn, the SLCM BGM-109A (TLAM-N), designed to attack ground targets with a nuclear warhead, since 1990, when the actions of the navy in the sea in ships not deployed.
Compliance SLCM in the ordinary gear as the U.S. aspect of the "cost / benefit" was demonstrated during "Operation Desert Storm" in 1991 against Iraq.
It was the first large-scale military operation, in what used modern cruise missiles started to attack ground targets. The intensity of their use is constantly increased as how to identify the real advantages of this type of weapon to others. Thus, during the first 4 days of "Operation Desert Storm" in the proportion of cruise missiles had only 16% of the shots. But within two months of the campaign, the figure was 55% of the total number of air strikes inflicted *.
* Of the total number of issued cruise missiles, about 80% had the CD of sea-based.
On the surface ships and submarines of the U.S. Navy, deployed in positions in the Mediterranean Sea and reddish, as in the Persian Gulf, was made 297 starts SLCM like "Tomahawk» (TLAM-C / D), of which 282 well appointed hit the target (6 CD denied after launch). Due to technical failures missiles nine starts did not take place.
Introduction of a new tactic KR, which was implemented during the operation, was their introduction to the defeat of transmission networks. Namely, a certain amount of SLCM like "Tomahawk" cluster warhead were filled with a special compound to destroy the energy networks (coils with carbon filament that induced rather short-circuit transmission networks).
During the operation eliminated the use of the CD loss of both aircraft and pilots. In addition, because of the low reflective surface in comparison with the aircraft and low altitudes approaching the target dramatically reduced the loss of missiles on the approach to targets. As a consequence, one of the main benefits of implemented unified command group during offensive air operations was the use of cruise missiles as a front-line, the right to suppress enemy air defenses. So Makar, SLCM consolidated their status as a major shock means used at the initial stage of an armed conflict.
Another obvious advantage of using SLCM "Tomahawk» Block III, confi
rmed during "Operation Desert Storm" — its all-weather capability. KR hit targets regardless of precipitation (rain, snow) and cloud cover, as long as the days of strikes and NIGHT MODE.
So Makar, the merits of cruise missiles that have been identified throughout the VNO to other means of destruction are obvious and significant. But this kind of tools are inherent flaws. In the middle of their principal — long training missiles for use, in other words, the flying mission. For example, in "Operation Desert Storm" in preparation for combat SLCM "Tomahawk" required 80 hours in view of the need to download a program from the system "Turk / Didzhismek" digital maps on the route to the destination (even in the presence of these images available to calculate the operators) . Problems with planning flight missions SLCM appeared, in addition, due to the nature of the terrain in the area of the object hit: the terrain was very plain and flat (lack of appropriate benchmarks) or very rough, allowing mask object. So Makarov was required to enter the job SLCM flight routes approaching the target on such terrain, terrain that allowed the excellent ability to use the onboard control system rocket. This led to the fact that several SLCM "Tomahawk" approach to the subject by the same route, resulting in the loss of missiles grew.
During "Operation Desert Storm" was revealed as the low efficiency of this type of weapon when attacking moves the targets — mobile ballistic missile launchers (none was destroyed SLCM) at one moment found purposes.
Conclusions The spices U.S. Department of Defense on the results of operations in Iraq, urged the military and political leadership of the country to reconsider some approaches to the implementation of the programs and the creation of promising cruise missiles. As a result, already in the 1993 fiscal year, the Ministry of Defence (MoD), the country embarked on the latest utilities that the priorities which have been improved tactical and technical characteristics of various existing CD-based and development on the basis of their latest generation of missiles.
In April of the same year, the U.S. Navy received the first batch of SLCM "Tomahawk" the latest modifications (Block III) with the satellite navigation system GPS, which provided approaching the target with at least some direction and sought for flight programs from SLCM only one image area in the final section of the line movement. The introduction of a similar navigation system has significantly reduced the time needed to plan and prepare rockets for use, but the pointing accuracy SLCM only as of the GPS system was low. This problem of the South American experts at offering solved by the introduction of differential GPS in the development of the next update missiles.
SLCM "Tomahawk» Block III loaded with the latest warhead mass is decreased from 450 to 320 kg. Compared with BC SLCM "Tomahawk» Block II, it has a strong case that a 2-fold increase penetration properties SLCM the preceding revision. In addition, the military head part SLCM fuse supplied with programmable time delay blasting and increased in store rocket fuel has permitted to increase its flight range of up to 1,600 km. In the end, for the variant SLCM used with submarines, was introduced improved boosters, allowed to bring the firing range to the level of the ship's option
Programming the approach to the target allows to storm it by several rockets fired from different directions. And if the earlier flight mission for SLCM "Tomahawk" was planned and introduced at bases in the United States, now in the Navy implemented a new girl system this kind — onboard planning system APS (Afloat Planning System), which reduces the time of preparation of missiles for combat use by 70%
Subsequent modification of SLCM "Tomahawk» — Block IV — designed to strike missions at the tactical level and, accordingly, is classified as SLCM "Tactical Tomahawk» (Tactical Tomahawk). Bimbo modification, created for the introduction of a surface ships, aircraft, submarines, with the aim to defeat both marine and terrestrial objects — a perfect CD of this class in their tactical and technical features. Its system Guidance has new abilities identification purposes and retargeting in flight by implementation of the communications / data with the aircraft and gallakticheskimi means of observation / control. Also provided the ability to techno SLCM patrol in the area for 2 hours for the exploration and selection of targets.
Time to prepare for combat reduced compared with SLCM Block 111 by 50% In the end, according to the military professionals in the U.S. Navy, SLCM "Tactical Tomahawk» (Block IV), due to the ability of its use by a wider range of purposes (including Tax) will allow reduce the total number of deployed SLCM by 40%
As is the case with "Operation Desert Storm", where U.S. forces have acquired the necessary experience in the combat use of cruise missiles, sea or air in the ordinary gear, the possibility of practical (combat) the introduction of the latest versions of SLCM was implemented by them in the course of the peacekeeping operation in Iraq December 1998 (theoperation "Desert Fox"), also when applied to massive air strikes against Yugoslavia in March-April 1999 ("Allied Force").
For example, in late 1998, as part of "Operation Desert Fox", the U.S. military has been used intensively SLCM "Tomahawk» (Block III), also upgraded ALCM type CALCM (Block IA). For all this, the fact that new versions of cruise missiles possessed more highest TTX was able to minimize most of the major shortcomings that have emerged in the process of fighting the introduction of the CD in the operation "Desert Storm".
Namely, due to the improvement of navigation systems KR, as the availability of a unified system of flight planning programs could reduce the training time index missiles for use by an average of 25 hours In turn, this allowed the United States to apply without annoying the massive missile attacks on targets in Iraq particularly fundamental for almost 12 days. As a result, the share of the CD in "Operation Desert Fox" had about 72% of air strikes.
In total during the entire operation contingent of U.S. forces used the more than 370 cruise missiles of various bases, of which only 13 for technical reasons not hit the designated target.
But as pointed out by military experts at zabugornye essentially sun Iraq did not have this air defense system / defense, and therefore the combined force was able to ensure the application of active massive air strikes and cruise missiles, in turn, has no real opposition from the enemy. Accordingly, and impartial evaluation of the effectiveness of combat SLCM introduction of new modifications can provide a very conditional. More convincing in this respect looks experience of combat use of these missiles in the operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, whose armed forces used an unusual strategy for the use of its air defense system, in connection with which the use of cruise missiles had its peculiarities.
March 24, 1999, in accordance with the adopted management solution Alliance, NATO began to conduct offensive air operations (UPE) against the FRY "Allied Force". The operation was supposed to be carried out in three steps:
— In the first step was planned to suppress the air defense system of Yugoslavia and incapacitate a principal military objectives located in Kosovo;
— In the second step was planned to continue the defeat of objects on the whole area of the FRY, with the main effort was planned to focus on the winding up of troops, military equipment and other military facilities, directly to the tactical level;
— During the third step was planned to put massive air strikes on the main municipal, military and industrial targets in order to reduce the FRY military and economic potential and resistance to Serb oppression. For a role in the operation was created
powerful group of air and naval forces of NATO, numbering in the first step of about 550 combat aircraft and 49 warships (including three aircraft carriers).
To perform the tasks identified in the first phase of the operation, NATO for the first 2 days have caused two massive air and missile strike (MARU), each lasting more than 3 hours In this case, an adopted in the U.S. Armed Forces typical scheme, in accordance with which the operative -tactical formation forces included three tier: Tier cruise missiles, air defense and strike breaking.
When applying aviation-missile strikes special place was given to sea-based cruise missiles, which were a part of all 3 levels. It was caused by the fact that finding the ship naval forces in the area of operational assignment allowed them due to the large performance characteristics of the CD actually applied any time of massive missile strikes on military and factory facilities of the FRY and as needed to block the Strait of Otranto connects the Adriatic and the Ionian Sea. U.S. Navy ships — SLCM carriers in the zone of conflict, sometimes to replenish ammunition cruise missiles from the warehouses to the south-east coast of Italy.
In turn, impacts ALCM were part of the only first-tier MARU, due to the fact that the number of aircraft carriers of the Kyrgyz Republic has been limited, and their use is hampered by opposition from enemy air defenses.
Namely, preparing for the long-term armed conflict with NATO COMMAND Yugoslavia decided to use the strategy of maximum preservation of the forces and air defense systems. Low involvement of active and passive air defense systems, especially in the first days of the operation, came as a complete surprise to the NATO command. Radar detection stations were off air targets, which effectively prevented the aviation alliance to apply anti-radar missiles HARM.
Armed Forces of the FRY was used in the main mobile air defense system "Cube" and "Arrow". Their radar targeting a small cut in the lumen of the time required to capture the goals and launch rockets, then SAM rapidly change their position. Also great used masked wrong position for which NATO aircraft launched strikes.
As a result, during the 2-Air and missile strikes NATO used above 220 cruise missiles of various bases (more than 30% of all employed in the operation), of which struck the intended objects up to 65% of the issued CD (according to preliminary estimates, this figure had to make 80%). 10 missiles were shot down and taken away from the target 6.
Together with the fact, according to Western experts, though that measure the effectiveness of the use of the CD was not high enough to achieve the goals of the first step of offensive air operations became possible in the main due to the introduction of specific guided missile weapon. In other words, the introduction of cruise missiles, and in particular the SLCM like "Tomahawk» (Block III), allowed, despite an unusual strategy for the introduction of forces and means of air defense forces of Yugoslavia, to ensure the defeat of the principal objects of the enemy strategically and seize an advantage in the air.
Thus, during the first phase of the operation had been knocked out the main airbases Yugoslav Air Force combat aircraft, in connection with which Air Force planes FRY Cycled fairly limited. Great damage was done stationary objects Defense (CP Air Force and Air Defense) and stationary radar. Consequently, as a result of the int
roduction of the active alliance of EW centralized control and air defense forces was actually broken. Parts and air defense units operated in a decentralized own areas of responsibility. By equipping the CD precision inertial navigation and guidance are extensively used to defeat the principal public administrative and industrial buildings, which included the defense industry and large enterprises civilian sector, facilities management and communications, petrochemical plants and oil storage facilities, television and microwave towers , bridges. The average number of attacks on targets ranged from one to four to six CD (repeated blows), depending on the size of the object, its security, accuracy, hitting, etc.
In total, during the first phase of the offensive air operations KR 72 struck the object of their 52 military and 20 civilian industrial applicability.
As a result of completion of the first step of the operation command of the alliance, faced with an unusual situation when solving problems UPE (introduction of "guerrilla" strategy forces and air defense of Yugoslavia), refused to implement the strategy of massive manpower and resources, and defected to the periodic fighting with drawing and sample group strikes for newly diagnosed or previously infected objects. In other words, the next steps operations by implementing a similar "harassing tactics", NATO shifted their main effort to defeat the Yugoslav air defense system to defeat other military installations, civilian facilities and infrastructure, specifically providing combat capability and maneuverability forces of the FRY. These criteria principal way of introducing air attack was flexible combination of continuous exploration of objects Yugoslavia following the application of group and single-aircraft missile strikes, with all this advantage was given to sea-based cruise missiles.
For this purpose, the composition of naval forces was increased to 57 ships of various classes, including four aircraft carriers. Due to the fact that the most perfect instrument of controlled winged aircraft owned by the United States, was the more significant forces outfit, highlighted by the United States for the role in the operation. Thus, the NATO naval group consisted of 31% of the warships of the U.S. Navy, from their carriers SLCM of the "Tomahawk" — 88% of the air in the South American group consisted of strategic aircraft, tactical aircraft the Air Force and Navy carrier aviation, and their total number reached 53% of the air component of NATO allied air.
In the process of periodic fighting KR perfectly applied, priemuschestvenno at night, to defeat dorazvedannyh and newly identified targets. Attacks were made on more than 130 sites, of which 52 (40%) were the objects of a civilian mission. Marveled at first objects of industry and infrastructure: fuel storage, repair shops, oil factories, bridges. In addition, in the interests of the destabilization of the political situation, the creation of chaos and panic in the country with cruise missiles were deposited pinpoint strikes on civilian targets: drug and chemical companies, power plants, TV and radio broadcasting centers, schools and clinics.
In general, in the course of operations against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was used about 700 cruise missiles, sea or air. With all of this about 70% of SD were used to hit stationary objects with the highest degree of integrity and a strong air defense system, and 30%
— State and administrative facilities and factory dual purpose. In turn, about 40 cruise missiles, according to the results of the operation were shot down by anti-aircraft air defense and 17 taken away from the goal (beating on the wrong objects).
Referring to assess the effectiveness of combat operations in the implementation of the KR "Allied Force", experts at Western also note that the destination of the command of the alliance to 40, and a second phase of the operation — up to 50 sites per day actually defeat the entire naval task group and NATO allied air (the carriers of cruise Missile) struck average about 30 sites. The main premise itself is not enough effective implementation of the CD is to follow:
— Bad weather that prevented the use of this aircraft carrier ALCM;
— The small number of groups of aircraft — ALCM carriers;
— Regarding the effective use of aircraft anti-aircraft defense of Yugoslavia;
— A difficult physical and geographical landscape of the area of the enemy, ensured the creation of the Armed Forces of the FRY opportunity masked infidel goals and liquidation of the Kyrgyz Republic on the circuitous routes.
So Makar, the use of cruise missiles, new versions of the U.S. Armed Forces in the Balkans has provided not only the obvious advantage of NATO over his opponent, reduce the time to absolutely take an advantage in the air, and once again confirmed the need for future development of the Kyrgyz Republic, taking into account the characteristics of their combat implementation that have been identified in the VNO, and it is possible to hit a moving object with a strong air defense / missile defense. In addition, the system requires a significant revision of the flight planning software cruise missiles to increase their resilience to the effects of RAP facilities and the ability to provide an independent, automatic search and selection of targets. This need is confirmed also by the fact that more practical to use the highest technologies of systems programming and only correct (help) CD in the process of fighting, than constantly conduct a topographic survey and adjustments virtually all areas inhabited areas of land in order to provide data to the onboard favorites of cruise missiles. In the final result, even already made a database of terrain must be constantly adjusted due to the impact of climatic criteria and the activities of the individual *.
* Already at this time the imperial ambitions of the U.S. forces them to save and store a huge database of terrain and objects in each country, while the number of natural disasters, global warming of the Earth, changing the view of the coast, the position of the pack ice, glacier, education and the disappearance of lakes and rivers require constant adjustments mapping.
These findings led the military and political control of the U.S. military to focus research and production potential in the development of new software, which will allow on-board systems to provide independent adjustment of the CD of th
e flight and target selection, the ability to use very precise criteria for urban development (reduction CWE missiles to the smallest value ). As the main requirements indicates the need for increased media types from which would run the CD, and increase their striking features.
In the development of the implementation of these requirements already in 1999, "Raytheon" has received from the U.S. DoD big order which foresaw for the next 3 years to improve the implementation of programs from TTX SLCM "Tomahawk", and since 2004, the monetary mass creation of the newest CD " Tactical Tomahawk. " Order total amount to 1,343 Navy units.
Fundamentally new distinction picking SLCM "Tactical Tomahawk" will be the presence in the composition of its board systems more sophisticated management system that will allow for precise all-weather navigation / guidance missile.
Also are working to expand the types of media that can be used rocket this modification. Namely, it is implied in addition to the existing system VLS (Vertical Launch System), which provides the method of vertical launch from surface ships and submarines, a system start-up of SLCM submarine torpedo tubes (Start System TTL — Torpedo Tube Launching). In this case, as in the case of SLCM "Tomahawk» Block III, in their tactical and technical characteristics of missiles "Tactical Tomahawk" in the form KRPL will not yield to this modification in the ship version.
In each of the armed conflicts of the last decade, where the U.S. military took part, before the CD sets specific tasks. However, during the entire period of time as the accumulation of battle experience of their use and improve performance characteristics of these instruments winged tasks specified and refined. So, if in operation "Desert Storm" cruise missiles in the ordinary gear, essentially had to "gain credibility" and consolidate its status as the leading shock front-line agents, the EIT "Allied Force", except this function is as basic had to deal with specific tasks on objects in the defeat of the precision criteria of urban development and the newly identified (dorazvedannyh) objects. In turn, the successful solution of these problems had intended large-scale introduction of this type of weapon in antiterroristichsskoy operations in Afghanistan, where it has been used more than 600 CD sea or air.
So Makar, the experience of combat use of cruise missiles, which allowed the South American military management to identify and form the main ways of developing them, indicates that at the present time this type of instrument has taken a completely (important) niche: KR anticipate acts of all the other forces, their attacks are strong and bows the whole area of the enemy. In the long term (presumably by the end of 2015), taking into account the current pace of modernization and improvement of cruise missiles, but to military professionals in the U.S. DoD, the range of tasks to tackle these KR, further expanded and provided for the earlier conduct effective information war to 50% of all strokes in the armed conflict or otherwise will be applied to cruise missiles.
So Makarov in the upcoming at the outbreak of armed conflict, though what at least some of the intensity and scale of the main means of Merit military targets will be set by the use of the CD-encompassing various bases.