Multiple launch rocket system — a tool known even purely amateurs and people who are not interested in military affairs. At least as it related specifically to the famous Guards mortars "Katyusha". After all, who would not read, but specifically "Katyusha" — BM-13 — were the first real MLRS, embodying all the main performance characteristics of these weapons: small, simple, the ability to simultaneously engage targets at relevant areas, and the big surprise of mobility.
After 1945, the Russian Army received a number of samples of rocket artillery developed based on the experience of the last war — such as the BM-24 (1951), BM-14, 200-mm Quadruple BMD-20 (1951), and 140-mm 16 MRL-receiver MB-14-16 (1958), and its 17-barrel towed embodiment PAR-14 (by D-gun carriage 44). First 50's has been developed and tested quite a powerful and long-range missile systems, "Kite", but in a series and did not go. But all these plants were, in fact, the only versions of the BM-13 — in other words, almost machines battlefield.
Combat Vehicle rocket launchers BM-24
Multiple rocket launcher BM-14-16
Multiple rocket launcher PAR-14
"AS I AM GLAD THAT FALLS" Hail! "
Finally, in 1963, was put into service the first system in the world of second-generation missile systems.
It was the prince's world (no exaggeration) of BM-21 — "Grad" caliber of 122 mm, which is the level of technology and now has no equal in the world. Technical solutions that have arisen in the development of "Castle", one way or another repeated in all of the world's systems — for example, "folding" plumage, providing a compact unit guides.
And most importantly, perhaps, the dignity of the car profitably distinguishes it from, it must be confessed, many samples of Russian arms — large modernization in store. For example, over the past 40 years, range "Grad" was able to increment from 20 to 40 km. Modifications have been made to the system for Navy and Navy. In 1965, three months has been put into mass creation of lightweight portable missile systems "Grad-P" with a range of 11 km. Soon she was "battle-tested" in Vietnam, the results of which the Viet Minh guerrillas lay down saying, "I'm so glad when falling" Hail! "
And now the "Grad" is the most effective system of multiple rocket launchers in the world totality of technical, tactical, economic, military and logistical features. Not accidentally copied it — legally and illegally in a huge number of states. For example, in 1995, it — 32 years after the creation — has decided to put on a stream of Turkey.
Back in 1964, when the creation of the "Castle" was just beginning to get used to, its constructor Ganichev began developing stronger systems of salvo fire. Its development ended in 1976 — as the troops were "Hurricane" with long-range 35 km and cluster munitions.
Not stopping there, in the late 60's experts at "Fusion" began designing the 300-mm MLRS with a range of up to 70 km. But they were denied funding — Defense Minister Marshal Grechko personally have lobbyists MRL of Grau that the Russian budget is not bottomless. As a result, work on the creation of third generation was delayed for almost 20 years.
Only in 1987 adopted the SA received 300 mm MLRS "Smerch". Firing range increased to 90 km, topographic location has to be controlled automatically via satellite systems. System was used adjusting the rotating missile flight using a gas-dynamic steering, managed personal electrical unit. "Tornado" also was equipped fully mechanized loading system using the factory equipped with transport and launch canisters single implementation.
This tool can be considered as the most powerful non-nuclear weapons system in the world — a volley of 6 "Smerch" is able to stop the advance of a whole division or kill a small town.
The gun came out so perfect that many military experts at the fame of redundancy "Whirlwind." And incidentally, in the NGO "Alloy", according to professionals, developed brand new MRL, which has so far conditional title "Typhoon". All limited only by the funds — which the budget is now much less than at the time of Marshal Grechko.
South American UNIVERSAL
After the second World War in the United States are not paid enough attention to the development of missile systems.
According to the views of Western military theorists, this type of instrument could play a significant role in the future Third World. In fact, until the early 80-ies of the South American MLRS inferior to
Russian. They were viewed as a tool actually only the battlefield and support the infantry and were faster development of the direction that represented the German "Nebelvelfer." Such, for example, was 127-millimeter "Zuni". Interestingly, the main technical requirement was the universal nature of systems of salvo fire, equips ordinary aircraft missiles.
Exceptionally, in 1976, commissioned by the War Department began developing the newest missile systems designed to eliminate the backlog of "potential adversary." So a MLRS, developed by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control and accepted into service in 1983. Need to pay tribute to — the car came out very nice and comfortable, the level of automation and autonomy superior Russian "Hurricanes". MLRS launcher does not have the usual constant guide, which replaces the armored box-farm — a "swing portion" of the launcher, which are placed one-time start-up containers on the MLRS can be used without problems projectiles 2-caliber — 227 and 236 mm. All controls are concentrated in one machine, which also simplifies the implementation of combat, and use as a chassis infantry fighting vehicle M2 "Bradley" has raised safety calculations. Specifically, the South American MLRS became central to the States — NATO allies.
MLRS, developed by Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control
In the 1990-2000-ies for the U.S. Army has developed a number of other missile systems — not so massive. For example, the MRL RADIRS, using a 70-mm air NURS type HYDRA. What is interesting is the multi-lateral MLRS in the world — the number of guides can reach 114. (!) Or landing multiple rocket launcher ARBS, including two shestikonteynernye launchers caliber 227 mm.
HOT BREATH OF THE DRAGON
Maybe it will sound once, but at the present moment the PRC in terms of development MLRS is a respectable second place after Russia.
Widely known for "patriotic legend", which create their own systems of salvo fire began in China only after the Sino-Soviet conflict on the peninsula Damanskii when fighting the introduction of "Castle" made a strong command of remembrance for the PLA.
In fact developing its own missile systems in China have begun even earlier. The first was the 107-mm towed multiple rocket launcher "Type 63", adopted by the armed People's Liberation Army of China in 1963. Export supplies of a cheap and relatively efficient system implemented in Syria, Albania, Vietnam, Cambodia, Congo, Pakistan and several other states. Licensed creation was cooperated in Iran, North Korea and South Africa.
107-mm towed multiple rocket launcher "Type 63"
Segodnyaschy basic model of the Chinese MRL 122mm 40-tube "type 81" is really almost everything is a copy of Russian BM-21. In 1983, the system was put into serial creation, and began its shipments to rocket artillery battalions of PLA.
122 mm MLRS Type 83 (Chinese "clone")
More recent versions 122mm MLRS — with the placement of an armored crawler "Type 89" and on a truck chassis inflated cross Tiema SC2030 «Type-90." These relatively high-quality machines have a modern sophisticated automatic fire control system intensively offered by China in the international arms market.
Tiema SC2030 «Type-90"
In recent years, there are several types of PLA new reactive systems markedly superior previous — 40 receiver WS-1, 273-mm-barrel 8 WM-80, 302 mm 8 receiver WS-1, and finally, the mnogokalibernaya world — 400 mm receiver 6 WS-2.
300mm 10-tube wheel MLRS A-100
Of this number should be made advances on a number of characteristics, even the Russian "Smerch" 300-mm 10-A-100 receiver with a range of up to 100 km.
In a word — China has to face MLRS very militant and a massive cannon.
European and not only
But it is not only the big military powers create MLRS. The military of many countries wanted to get so massive weapon of war, which is also not subject to a variety of international restrictions.
The first were gunsmiths Germany, in 1969, put on by the Bundeswehr in 110-mm MLRS 36 receiver LARS, and until now was in service with a 2-versions (LARS-1 and LARS-2).
They were followed by the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun, in 1973, following the common public
policy to do everything alone, who began the creation of the 130-mm MLRS, two years later, put into service under the heading "Type 75".
Almost immediately, the former Czechoslovakia has developed an unusual machine RM-70 — 40-gauge rails 122 mm, equipped with the world's first automatic recharging device (alternatively — two 40-pack chargers, guides on the same platform).
130-mm multiple rocket launcher type 75 makes a single run
In the 70's in Italy, created a series of MLRS 70 mm and 122-mm caliber FIROS, Spain — Teruel caliber of 140 mm, with anti-aircraft weaponry.
Since the early 80's in South Africa produced 127-mm 24-tube MLRS Valkiri Mk 1.22 («Valkyrie"), specially designed for the South African theater is also close combat missile systems Mk 1.5.
Would be no different if developed engineering idea, Brazil made in 1983 MLRS Astros-2, which has a number of very exciting technical solutions and their ability to fire five types of missiles of various calibers — from 127 to 300 mm. Brazil also produces MRL SBAT — a cheap launcher to fire unguided rockets aviation.
In Israel, in 1984, adopted an MRL LAR-160YU on the chassis of French light tank AMX-13 with 2 packs of 18 tracks.
The former Yugoslavia has released a number of MLRS — a heavy 262-mm M-87 Orkan, 128-mm M-77 Oganj with 32 runners and the automatic recharge (similar to RM-70), also easy MLRS Plamen, a licensed copy of the Chinese "Type 63". Although their development is stopped, but in service and they are used extensively in the Yugoslav conflict to 90, showing good results.
MLRS — heavy 262-mm M-87 Orkan
North Korea quickly copied the (simplified) Russian complex "Hurricane", creating a 240-mm MLRS "Type 1985/89." And, as in this country accepted, beginning to sell it to anyone who can pay, and later sold the license and own davneshnemu partner — Iran. There, the complex was rebuilt once again and was given the name "Fajr". (Incidentally, the MRL in Iran made by the company under the title "Shahid Bagheri Industries" — specifically, so it's not the joke.) In addition, the MRL Arash Iran produces 30 or 40 runners 122mm, very similar to the system of "Grad".
Even with Egypt in 1981 developed the MLRS Sakr ("Falcon"), a 30-receiver pirated copy of all of the same "Castle"
Of the latest released Indian 214-mm multiple rocket launcher Pinaka, which was the result of many years of effort to make the Indian defense industry's own creation MLRS. The system is designed to perform combat missions in the Indian-specific criteria, with a focus on difficult terrain and mountainous terrain, as the basis of the requirements of a very frisky changing positions. Troop tests began in February 1999 and the summer of the same year and took combat use — during the India-Pakistan conflict in Jammu and Kashmir.
The cannon of bygone BATTLES
It must be said, many modern military theorists believe MLRS typical dead-end view of the arms, whose heyday falls on an era when planners were preparing for the Third World. And in today's local conflicts they might, as already mentioned, very sverhizbytochna. Much less that the price of their own difficulties and modern missile systems approach operational-tactical missiles for self-service and require quite prepared staff. For example, during the Arab-Israeli conflict, even the Syrians, not to mention the action movies "Hezbollah", managed to miss when firing MLRS not only by Israeli troops, but even in urban neighborhoods.
But though the MRL is not "gods of war", and do not intend to resign.