The fiery whirlwind 1956

Who ever been in Hungary, for sure, remember this perfectly comfortable and prosperous country in central Europe, but not many who have remembered that the history of relations between our countries in the past 2 centuries, uh wore a rather difficult and sometimes dramatic nature. The Russian army entered three times in the area of the country: the first time in the period of 1848-1849., When Emperor Nicholas I decided to give military assistance to his own brother of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty in the oppression of the national liberation revolution, the second time in 1945, when the reddish Army already as liberators from the Nazis in fierce battles unleashed this country, and, in the end, in 1956 the Russian army is suppressed so called counter-revolutionary rebellion. Hungarians were on the ground of our country as occupiers. This country was the most loyal ally of Hitler, she went to war with the Soviet Union June 27, 1941, and continued to fight until April 12, 1945.

Backdraft 1956

On the Soviet-German front in the "Carpathian Group" 2nd Hungarian Army and Air Group led war to 205 thousand at the end of the war they added another 150 thousand fighter on the ground itself Hungary. General loss of Hungary amounted to about 300 thousand people. But the more dramatic action between the two countries turned the fall of 1956. As a result, gross errors Russian and Hungarian favorites, the situation in Hungary by the end of October 1956 took a tragic scenario of their own development, which ultimately paid with their lives of thousands of people and hundreds of Hungarian Russian fighter. M. Rakosi regime, which was in power at the time in the country, the Kremlin curators have not seen and ripening underestimated the people's discontent. Affected complete inability to compromise the pro-Soviet government with society. Was poor and the choice of candidate Imre Nagy, who had succeeded to control M.Rakoshi Hungary in October 1956. Not having sufficient political will, it is, more importantly, could not prevent bloodshed, and this is its main fault. At the Budapest uprising began with a completely peaceful student demonstration, and then continued orgy, bloodshed and anarchy. Management of the country absolutely lost control of the situation and requested assistance from the Soviet Union.

Initially planned to do with the oppression of riot forces Russian troops feature of the case and the VNA troops, and on the night of October 24 in Budapest were introduced around 6000 Russian Army troops, 290 tanks, 120 armored personnel carriers, 156 guns. In the evening they were joined by part of the 3rd Infantry Corps of the Hungarian People's Army (VNA).

On the morning of October 25 came to Budapest 33rd Guards mehdiviziya, and in the evening the 128th Guards Rifle Division, later assimilated Special Corps. At this time, the structure of the parliament incident: the upper floors opened fire, resulting in death Russian officer and was burned tank. In response, Russian troops opened fire on demonstrators in the end, both sides killed 61 people and wounded 284.

In such a situation on October 24, Nagy was appointed to the post of Chairman of the Council of Ministers. At first he tried not to put down the rebellion, and to lead it. The new government under the I.Nadya urgently demanded the withdrawal of Russian troops. As a result, up to 30 October, all Russian troops were withdrawn from the capital to their bases. The security bodies were dissolved. The streets of the Hungarian towns were virtually no power, taking advantage of anarchy, the rebels, which additionally joined by several thousand criminal released from prison parts, staged a real hunt for the local Communists, officers of the State. Security and Internal Affairs, the blood flowed the river on the streets of Budapest. It was necessary to take positive measures to restore order in the country, which has remained at that time without any kind of power and control.

Management of the USSR realized that without a large-scale invasion can not do, and this case was prepared by a special plan for the military operation, code-title "Whirlwind", according to which in addition stationed on the territory of Hungary feature of the case, which consists of five divisions, operations were also to participate 2 more army, having in its composition vsepolnotsennyh 9 divisions. The total number of Russian troops deployed in terms of "Whirlwind" was approximately 60 thousand soldiers and officers. For the development of operations in charge of the Union of Russian Marshal Zhukov. The specific parts of the command was entrusted to Marshal Russian Union I.Konevu. All units have accurate combat tasks. Specifically, the center itself is supposed to capture the Budapest uprising forces 3 divisions. Starting a "Whirlwind" was scheduled for November 4, 1956. The fate of Budapest actually was sealed.

As planned, the Russian began on November 4 "Operation Whirlwind", and on the same day were captured by the main objects in Budapest. Members of the government of Imre Nagy took refuge in the Yugoslav embassy. But the rebel troops of the Hungarian Guard and state separate army units continued to resist Russian troops.

During the fighting in Budapest Russian troops applied massive artillery attacks on homes of resistance and spent the next sweep of urban neighborhoods forces of infantry supported by tanks. The main centers of resistance to the rebels began working suburbs of Budapest, where local councils were able to lead a more or less organized resistance. These areas of the town were the most massive artillery bombardment.

Against the rebels (in the uprising has taken the role of more than 50 thousand Hungarians) were thrown into Russian troops (A total of 31,550 soldiers and officers) with the support of the Hungarian workers' detachments (25 thousand), and the Hungarian state security bodies (1.5 million). Maintenance of street fighting in that the tremendous European town, which was in Budapest, it was not easy, but Russian troops had many commanders who have extensive experience of the Second World War, some of them took part in the storming of Budapest in 1945, the tanks in the street fighting of well under dense cover of infantry, because the rebels had not just burn them with "Molotov cocktail" or even rocket launchers, because the samples were immediately stopped by fire infantry units. To capture the buildings were made special assault groups, is a combination of tanks, armored personnel carriers and infantry. Were also formed intelligence units and sapper units that are required to eliminate minefields.

In the process of fighting tanks with cannon fire and rammed done the aisles at the barricades put up by the city streets, opened the path for the infantry and paratroopers. The scale of the fighting says these are the facts: November 5, part of the 33rd Guards Mechanized Division after the artillery attack began the assault unit of resistance in the cinema, "Corwin" in which participated about 170 guns and mortars, 11 artillery battalion. With 3 sides several 10-s shot the surviving tanks firing points, the last pockets of resistance by suppressing the insurgency. By the evening of 71 th Guards Tank Regiment Colonel Litovtseva and 104th Guards Mechanized Regiment Colonel Yanbahtina obsessed with urban quarter.

Immediately after Russian troops were attacking battalions of the Hungarian officers who conducted the final sweep of urban neighborhoods, and woe to rebel if he got a
tool in the hands of their hands — Plainclothes war knows no mercy, lucky for those who give up in the hands of the Russian Army, this managed to stay alive. No negotiations with the rebels command of the Russian troops did not lead, a corridor for civilians is not granted, the foreign journalists in war zones is not allowed. The border with neighboring Austria was already firmly locked in the first hours of operation.

Oppression and rebellion came out of Budapest. Part of the 8th Mechanized Army from November 4 to 6 disarmed 32 Hungarian garrison, suppressing the armed resistance in Derbretsene, Miskolc, Szolnok, Kecskemet and other troops and generals Babajanyan Mamsurova took control of airports and major roads were blocked by the Austro-Hungarian border. By November 11 insurgents armed resistance was kinked at the whole area of Hungary. Stopping the open struggle, the remnants of the rebel groups have gone into the forest to the creation of partisan groups, but after a number of days after the continuous combing the countryside, which participated in the Hungarian officer shelves were completely eliminated. An important role that the guerrilla movement and failed to gain traction, has played the position of the Hungarian peasantry, which, like much of the country's population, so did not support the rebellion, as well as most of the Hungarian army, in the main to take a neutral position on this armed conflict.

In total, according to statistics, during the period from October 23 to December 31, 1956 in connection with the rebellion and fighting on both sides were killed in 2652 Hungarian citizen and wounding 19226. Exclusively in Budapest killed about 2 million people. and more than 12 thousand were wounded. About 200 thousand people. left Hungary. The loss of Russian army, according to official figures, 669 people were killed, 51 — missing, 1540 — wounded. In the course of the fighting was hit and damaged a huge amount of equipment, so that only one 33rd Guards Mechanized Division lost 14 tanks and self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers, 9, 13 guns, 4 BM-13, 31 cars and 5 bikes. Until now, the controversy did not subside, whether the acts of the Russian army intervention? And well, no. The deployment of troops in October 1956 carried out at the request of the legitimate government of the Hungarian Imre Nagy and can not be qualified as an intervention. "Operation Whirlwind", of course, is another matter, but in another way it was just impossible. In this strshnom chaos and the complete absence of at least some authorities Hungary at the physical level could not exist. All the same, someone would have to clean up the mess, or us, or the West. But the West at that time was occupied by the Suez crisis and to get into an open confrontation over Hungary Russian Union obviously not going to, so that nothing favorites rebels were counting on South American help, they just happen to be a little small change in the game major global powers.

Who came to power after the suppression of rebellion Ya.Kadar rules Hungary more than 30 years. But he was building the socialism that developed areas of the Union of Russian. He introduced into Hungarian folk other choices (several candidates for one seat), partial liberalization of prices, the economic levers of enterprise management.

The program was carried out of the commercial banks, joint-stock companies and stock exchanges, Hungary became a mixed economy, the market began to compete among themselves municipal, cooperative and private enterprise. Country has become a favorite of the standard of living of the population in the middle of the socialist states so far and an example of so-called socialism with in a human face.

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