Relations between Russia and Poland could never be friendly name. In the crisis years gentry certainly took advantage of the situation and brutally robbed the Russian town, captured the area. In times of crisis, and the languid decadence Poland has always appealed to the Russian government for help. So stable aggressive behavior is typical for the country in question is in many centuries, and it should take into account modern politicians. Now we talk about the Kosciuszko uprising and its suppression of Russian troops, in which a special role played by an excellent military leader Suvorov.
Now there is a whole line of historians, hysterically claiming that the immortal glory of Suvorov's not deserved, that this man is less than a butcher, the destroyer of freedom and a champion of serfdom. Let's face it, flu hysteria — nothing else has stepped up as a product in Europe now russophobia. In particular characteristic russophobia municipal leaders seeking to divert public attention from their own failures and mistakes.
In 1791, the anarchy in Poland With years of indescribable proportions. And without that freedom-loving gentry are increasingly ignored the royal decrees and decisions, and abused its right to disrupt a diet, similar behavior hindered the strengthening of the country's power. An attempt to introduce the newest Constitution of the powerless King Stanislaus Poniatowski has caused resentment of the Polish gentry, and in 1792, the Confederation was formed. At the general meeting of the Confederate Constitution was repealed, and the power of the king to this point has not been recognized. Surprisingly, both were nekompitentnymi Polish nobles, because their behavior was not just lucrative Russian Empire, but to put on the brink of destruction of the government itself. As a result, formed the two main competing blocs: the adherents of the modern Constitution and the Confederates.
Preparation of the uprising carried a lot earlier, and its main organizations involved in such well-known people in Poland, as a general Dzyalynsky, merchant Kapostas and others. The scale of the revolt was wearing civilian character of the war, because of the rebels were even farmers armed with pitchforks and scythes. Catherine II, in spite of his correspondence with thinkers such as Voltaire, specifically supported the Confederacy, pointing to the area of Poland Russian troops. RF needed only a weak Poland with the puppet master.
From the side of the rebels, or, as they called them in Poland itself, insurektov, as commander of the notorious made Tadeusz Kosciuszko. Own home to this extraordinary man believed Rzeczpospolita, but was exposed to the French revolutionary thoughts. His fate is full of mind-blowing adventure. He was in civilian U.S. war, where he proved himself a professional and resolute commander, was involved to control the Polish troops had intercourse with revolutionary France. Kosciuszko took the special confidence of the rebels and ordinary people, of bravery and luck in the military enterprises of the man walking legend. It was a worthy opponent of Russian military leader Suvorov.
Ideas Tadeusz Kosciuszko was much more extensive original objectives rebels, taking command, he took an oath not nobility and the Polish people, for want was to defend the interests of all public strata of the country. Such a favorite was very unsafe for the gentry, and for the Russian tsars. Kosciuszko well versed in politics and realized that the only honorable course of development of Poland — this is the power and freedom. He agreed to lead an army on the condition that freedom will be provided not only the nobility, and the ordinary citizens of the country. Joined the rebels and Polish lord, who had hoped to preserve their power and position. If we talk more precisely, the rebels were specifically Confederates, because at the theoretical level the head of the country was on the side of the troops Kosciusko.
March 16, 1794 Kosciuszko in Krakow was proclaimed dictator newest republic after it was made an act of rebellion. Support the election of General Kosciuszko Madalinsky, breaking the Russian squad and capturing its coffers. Russian forces under the command of Tormasov and Denisov entered the area of Poland in order to beat the insurgency, has not gone away, and Prussia. Russian woes under Raclawice stirred up all the Polish population. Under the influence of this news broke out rebellion in Warsaw, which was ultimately defeated the Russian garrison in the town. Riot repeated in Vilna running Yasinskiy of the town was able to run only a part of the Russian army, and the rebels signed an act of rebellion of the Lithuanian people.
The army of the rebels rapidly increased, the call was declared throughout the country. The revolutionary promise of freedom attracted not only perfectly suited up gentry, and conventional farmers who had just spit out guns, knives or forks. The main building consisted of 20 3-thousand man, and the total size of the army was more than seventy thousand rebels. Performed by the Russian army Saltykov, protects against seizure of the Polish territories annexed areas of the country, from Turkey in a hurry glorious body Suvorov. On the part of Prussia acted as more than fifty thousand people and more than 11 thousand defense produced the country's borders. Do not stay aside and Austria, to send troops to the number of 20 thousand fighter. The Russian army numbered a little more than forty thousand people.
The strategy of the rebels was primitive and similar to the movement of the crowd, sweeping the enemy's own way. Prof. military chiefs among the rebels was not, because all the fortune based on a numerical and an advantage of surprise. But when the war ran across the stage of a long confrontation, and the Confederates several acclimatized in the circumstances, Kosciusko felt acute shortage of weapons, skilled strategists and commanders. Farmers wage war simply did not know how, and numerical quickly transformed into an advantage defect because control was some tremendous army.
The few Russian troops have shied away from fights with insurektami, but connecting with bolshennymi parts, immediately moved into the offensive. Denisov did so by joining forces entrusted him with the Prussian troops. At this time, was taken Krakow, which was severe blow to the forces of Kosciusko. Derfendel defeated the rebels under the command of hare and took Lublin an
d Repnin located near Vilna. Repnin, but did not decide how much-or decisive action, waiting for the approach of Suvorov. Austrian troops occupied Krakow, also took the town of Chelm and Sandomierz, but then engage in battles did not dare, because the main purpose of the government had no role in the partition of Poland, not victory. The rebels slowly, but retreated to the Vistula River, but they had been taken Bromberg.
Approach the small detachment was the beginning of the sparkling wins Russian troops. September 4th squad Suvorov took the course Kobrin, for the following day inflicted a crushing defeat on his superior strength and artillery running Sierakowski, 7 successfully crossed the river Bug. Suvorov acted immediately without giving the enemy time obmozgovat their actions, and are quite scattered September 8 housing Sierakowski, surpassing Russian virtually doubled. After which the rebels began to shy away from the collision with Suvorov and directed all their efforts to rush towards him reinforcements.
But to suspend the Russian leader was unreal, he soon teamed up with the forces of Derfendelya, as queen. At the disposal of Alexander Vasilyevich was already 22 thousand people, which allowed him to deploy an active offensive group. Followed by a crushing blow at the grasshopper, and then was taken in Prague, Warsaw surrendered to the latter. Suvorov swept through the tormented military clashes Polish soil and never suffered defeat. His loss was small, while the rebel army was deprived people tyschami.
Frederick Hirsch (1821-1895). "Heroes of the Revolution" (between 1850-1890). Kosciuszko — fourth from the right. In America, Tadeusz Kosciuszko was awarded the Order of Cincinnatus, established by George Washington (George Washington, 1732-1799), highly appreciated award Pole. Illustration from the archives of the Library of Congress
Lord of Stanislav has been focused in Russia at the end of December, which placed his crown at the feet of the empire. The sovereignty of Poland lost altogether. Tadeusz Kosciuszko was captured shortly before the final surrender of the rebels. He was sent to Russia and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress, where he stayed on the Rights of the guest in the house of the commandant, although considered a prisoner. Paul I freed Kosciuszko. Alexander I even offered him to join the new Polish government, but he refused, citing his decision by saying that one hundred percent the country's borders were never recovered. The last days of the uprising ended mastermind in the Swiss town of Solothurn away from home. It still remains were reburied in Krakow and the Polish people to the present day or the public considers him a hero.
The results of the liberation of the uprising in Poland were sad. The government has lost its sovereignty and was divided between Russia, Prussia and Austria. Despite the extensive experience and potential of Kosciusko, rebellion had cooperated, resulting suffered a crushing defeat, the public spirit of the fallen, and the country did not exist. Evenly Polish men was re-united, but the trip took a century.