Deficiencies, manifested in the process of fighting the introduction of the M16 A1, have far more in '68 for approval in the United States applets «ARSAP». The program was designed to create a promising small arms. The basic idea of applets — the creation of complex infantry coming «FRS». The complex must be able to fire small bursts and have a grenade launcher. Only a decade this project, which has already went to another program from «JSSAP», has been implemented in a modernized M 16 A1 E1. The rifle has received the title of "M 855".
As a result, a single set of test ammunition Rifle armament for the states of NATO becomes 5.56h45. The cartridge is designed by the Belgian company FN. The cartridge was created for the Belgian machine gun FN «Minimi». Creating M16 A1 E1 and standardization of ammunition, led to the breakdown required features and assumptions made solutions of the military department of the United States for rearmament modern rifle.
Colt company, creator of the upgraded rifles began reworking a standard cartridge gun. The South American title holder — M 855. During the work has several upgrade options:
— standard model 701 with fixed small bursts;
— modernization with languid barrel, another name machine gun, model 741;
— modernization under the automatic rifle, model 723, which had a fixed firing mode small bursts;
— Colt Commando, model 733 or M16 A2, the South American sub-machine gun.
In '81 the standard rifle M16 A1 E1, began to pass a series of tests in the armed forces of the United States. After a successful test in '82 rifle enters the armed forces under the name M 16 A2. Deliveries M 16 A2 units MT U.S. Navy in '84, in the U.S. Army ground units -85 year. The use of a new cartridge in the rifle with the heavy bullet, required the designers to increment the slope of the rifling from 305 mm to 178 mm. The slope of the voltage increase caused by the barrel material. In the process improvements, increasing the diameter of the rifle barrel, along with it, increased the total weight of the rifle with 170 gr. Range acts rifle cartridge 5.56h45 mm — 800 meters.
Rifles were issued in two versions:
— with a trigger for conducting single and automatic fire;
— with a trigger for the conduct of a single and fixed in three rounds of fire.
Lock mode implemented using the latest details in the trigger — the ratchet. The latest version of the M16 A2 acted solely in units of U.S. Marine.
In the hard-faced rifle receiver, the right was mounted visor reflection sleeves forward. In the M16 A1 rifle itself visor came in extra equipment and installed without the help of others. Compensator function, due to the lack of 2 slots in the bottom of his, took over the flame arrestor. The top slot muzzle brake itself passed through a certain part of the propellant gases. The gases coming up and to the right, offset the withdrawal guns at shooting skyward, and further reduce dust generation during harvesting gases. These innovations have appreciated the United States Marines in combat operation "Desert Storm". Stock and fore-end made of polyamide with good insulating characteristics. The two halves of the forearm, upper and lower, are completely interchangeable. The butt of the rifle to stabilize and hold guns to increment in the square and lengthened by 1.5 centimeters. Endured configuration and pistol grip — changed the shape of parts. There was a modified sling swivel under the belt for carrying guns in readiness. The barrel has a lug for docking bayonet. Bayonet to M16 A2 — M9. Suitable for both of early M16 and M16 A1. Instead of iron stores M16 A2 received minor plastic ammunition stores under 30.
Apart from the improvements and successful innovation, the M16 A2 also has close gaps:
— precarious work revertible spring;
— diminutive striker and pin;
— sensitivity of the instrument to contamination.
Representations of the American military specialists after using a rifle in the operations of the Gulf — the rifle is not fully meet modern requirements imposed on the arms of the class.
Fascinating tests A2 and M16 AK-74 held in Russian Union:
— American rifle recoil momentum for more than a third of the Russian AK-74;
— Continuous shooting the AK-74 showed the best results;
— Single shooting from the M16 A2 better;
— readiness for combat use different criteria in the AK-74 is far superior to the willingness M16 A2.
Batch creation of the M16 A2 rifles, M16 and M16 A1 — 64-89 years old. In the U.S., the creation of mass producing company «Colt Industries Corp». In the 90s started the development of subsequent modernization M16 A3. Around the same time the creation of rifles transfer of «FN Manufacturing Inc». Create rifles in the company is less expensive for the Army of the United States-420 versus 455 bucks a company Colt. On the '97 there were more than 10 million units of M16 and its modifications.
On this day, the State Guard and reservists are armed with M16 A2. Apart from the United States rifle is in service with Brazil, Canada and Fiji. Modernization of the rifle, model 723 was delivered some time in the UAE.
Apart from these modifications M16 A2, there is a modification of the model 635 — PP "Colt Commando". Developed in '82. Is available today. It should be armed with a number of police forces, protection of nuclear facilities in parts of the U.S. Marine.
At 94, the Army of the United States enters into service new versions of M16 — M16 A4 and M16 A3. The main differences from the M16 A2 — a rifle equipped with a bar «Picatinny rail». Not to mention all the modern devices that are installed on the bar, it may be the installation of a removable handle like the M16 A2.
In the near future the main South American rifles equipped with scopes with low magnification «Trijicon ACOG» or a red-dot sights of the Aimpoint, EOTech. USM M16 A3 provides two modes of fire — automatic and single. M16 A4 can carry a fixed fire small bursts.
On these rifles used brand new system RIS — forearm to the upper and lower guide. At the bottom of the bar strengthens the M203 grenade launcher.
In '94 on armament take the rifle, model 720 uses 5.56h45 mm cartridge. M4 is the designation. Apart from the army, for service of the M4 comes in special operations United States. Soon this instrument arming officers of the army, the composition of military vehicles, military rear units. Gun up to now is in service.
In '96 taking the base M16 A3, make another M4 A1 carbine. It weapons assigned mode using small bursts. Especially for the special forces of the United States Navy — Marine Seals, developed on the basis of the M4 A1 — carbine Mk.18 Mod. 0 Close Quarters Battle Rifle (CQBR). The carbine has a short barrel -254 mm. Rifling of the gun barrel change with 178 mm by 262 mm. On the combined muzzle brake-arrestor probable installation of equipment for noiseless and flameless firing.
Experience of implementation in combat operations in Afghanistan's 2002-10 M4 carbine and the M4 A1, brought them unflattering assessment. The main drawback was left — sensitivity to contamination. However, it only led to the fact that the tool in combat units were cleaned almost every day. Rub well to carbines and ammunition. Recognized principle of the U.S. military — even if only once Shots gun, clean it and prepare it for newcomer use.
Apart from sensitivity to contamination identified other shortcomings against the same M16 A2:
— reduced trunk lowered the initial velocity of the bullet;
— range decreases the effectiveness of the sighting;
— overheating of the forearm and the barrel is busy shooting;
— increased wear of the main parts;
— decreased overall system reliability.
But these flaws are not scared of the U.S. military, the instrument is very popular in the armed forces of the United States. Designers so far have been developing various projects to upgrade basic M16. Apart from the development tools, carried out research on new types of ammunition.
Meanwhile rifle in all its variants is the main infantry weapons not only the United States, and a huge number of countries of the modern world.
In general, the "black rifle"It was a pretty successful prototype personal armament of the military units.