The Nile River

The great artery of our planet — the Nile — starts south of the equator, and its waters to the north through half of Africa to the Mediterranean. Many thousands of years excites the imagination of people, the river, affecting their beauty and power and frustrate its mystery.
For a long time, the Nile is the longest river in the world. Its length is about 6700 km. Only the recent expedition to the sources of the Amazon, and found that it exceeds the length of 7,000 km, the African giant pushed into second place. But the abundance of water throughout the year Neil can not boast.
From ancient times, the origin of the Nile remained a mystery for geographers. No one knew where his origins, no one could explain his annual floods.
Only in the last century, it was found that the largest river in Africa, formed by the confluence of two rivers, completely different in nature.
The longest source of the Nile — is the White Nile. It begins in the mountains of Burundi in sub-Saharan Africa at a height of 2.5 km and then a torrent rushing to the huge Lake Victoria. From this inner sea-lake he runs through the wet jungle of Uganda that had calmed down, slowly step on the semi-desert plains of Sudan. Here in its waters still are found crocodiles and roam the coastal reeds mighty hippopotamus. Over 600 km of the Nile barely makes its way farther north, through endless marshes overgrown with papyrus, and then, finally calmed down, slowly continues its way through the savanna and desert.
Another source of the Nile — Blue Nile — a truly different unbridled temper. From the rocky highlands of Ethiopia, he flies down to Lake Tana, it breaks out of the high and the glittering rainbows waterfall, followed by a roar of thunder and makes its way through the wild and gloomy ravine semisotkilometrovoe expanses of Sudan.
In the desert, the Blue Nile is wider and quieter. Sand dunes waves come close to both sides, but behind them darken the cotton fields, cut threads channels of lead them life-giving water of the river.
In the heart of Khartoum — Sudan's capital — both the source merge, forming, finally, the actual Nile. Hence, it rolls its waters to the sea beyond, to which more than 3,000 km. Slowly, it is important to Nile flows through desert regions of the Sahara and dull, where the rains do not fall over the years. After overcoming a series of rocky rapids, he enters the territory of Egypt and poured into a large bowl of water reservoirs Nasser. It stretches for 500 km giant reservoir — the largest man-made lake on the planet.
It would seem, Neil, sandwiched on both sides of the deserts, with the hot summer would dry up completely, or at least strongly obmelet, as is the case with most of the rivers in the desert. But, oddly enough, the opposite is true! At the height of summer, the end of August, when the heat reaches the limit, the river level begins to rise, the Nile overflows its banks, flooding the valley and on the whole kilometers of muddy green is blood-red.
In September, the water sometimes rises to ten meters. The whole valley is then for a few weeks in one long lake. Then the water begins to subside, the river enters the bank, leaving the fields layer of fertile silt. This is just waiting Egyptians. Begins immediately sat down, and the coastal plains are covered by a carpet of fresh greens. This has happened since time immemorial. Fertilized silt ground gave good yields from year to year, providing millions of people with food Nile Valley.
The ancient Egyptians worshiped the Nile — because it depended on the life and well-being of their country. They brought him to the victim and sang in honor of his sacred hymns.
The period of flooding of the Nile was a national holiday in Egypt. In honor of the divine Hapi (the mighty god of the Nile), arranged sumptuous feasts.
Periods of rain in the headwaters of the Blue Nile coincide with the Nile floods. The same White Nile flowing from the equator, powered by rains evenly throughout the year. The amount of water in the Blue Nile in August and September increased by forty times, with the result that the volume of water in the Nile near Aswan increases the average time in pyatnadtsad. The flood lasted about three months.
Then, during the eight months of the water gradually decreases, and by the beginning of June, the Nile dries up so that its width is reduced by half against the usual. At this time, it seems that the river does not flow at all, and stands on the site. Clay shoals and zaohshey mass of black mud stretch along both banks. Trees are covered with a thick layer of dust: it just finished blowing Khamsin — the wind, 50 consecutive days of sand brought from the south of the Sahara.
Finally, there is the first sign of the end of the hot period: starts blowing strong north wind that does not stop for a month. One day the trees are cleared of dust, and then the valley is covered with greenery. The water rises a little at first, just five centimeters. At this time, it turns green and unpleasant smell. Fortunately, the period of the "Green Nile" lasts only three to four days, and the locals can not do at this time in advance of stored fresh water.
Then the water begins to arrive in 10-12 days and it is one more transformation. Come out in the morning on the deck of the ship and the traveler suddenly horrified to discover that the rays of dawn … opened his eyes red as blood, water. Go with the bloody river — not for the faint of heart! A period of "Red Nile." Water flow is at this time as many red sludge, which changes the color and texture, resembling thick jelly. Il this gradually settles on the banks, as the Nile spreads across the width of the valley dvadtsatikilometrovaya, and then only very slowly receding to its banks. Only by the end of September, the river back on track.
In Upper Egypt, the Nile reaches the width of a kilometer. It flows past the ancient temples of Luxor, fueling its waters a narrow strip of fields and gardens, extending along both banks. But she suddenly cut off, and immediately after the last bed of sand dunes of the desert begins. Such is the power and authority of the Nile waters.
To the north, in Middle Egypt, the valley widens to 25 km, and it is all very green palm groves, fields and gardens. Tilled every piece of the valleys of the sixty million people in the country, only three percent live at a distance from the Nile.
In the six and a half thousand kilometers from the source of the river stretches crowded and noisy Cairo — the largest city in Africa. Spilled here for one and a half kilometers, the Nile carries its waters under six huge bridges, past the domes and minarets of many mosques, old adobe blocks and modern hotels.
Having emerged from the chaos of the city, the Nile runs up to thousands of channels, forming one of the world's great river deltas. Here lives a half of all Egyptians. Ahead is the Mediterranean Sea. Two wide shipping sleeves Neil completes its long journey here from the equator.
Such is the amazing river, came to us through thousands of years and thousands of miles and has survived two grown up on its banks, the great civilization. It is impossible to examine all at once — so great is the length of the Nile, so many boundaries — both political and geographical — splits it into separate parts. Neal — thousands of faces, and they are all beautiful, all worthy of admiring attention of the traveler

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