English jurist, one of the professionals in the UN counter-terrorism and human rights Ben Emmerson said that the exponential growth in the use of unmanned technologies both in the civilian and in the military sphere is a new challenge, which thrown the accepted norms of international law. According to him, it should make international legal mechanisms to regulate the conduct of efficient and self-contained in each investigation into the death of civilian persons in time of the attacks strike UAV.
Own a detailed report in this regard Ben Emmerson going to submit to the General Assembly of the UN tribunal before the end of 2013. At this time, the official dealer of the United States at the United Nations on the criteria of anonymity, said that the U.S. government has publicly acknowledged the fact that he spends strikes by unmanned aerial vehicles Target, one way or another associated with a terrorist organization "Al-Qaeda". Claiming that these attacks are consistent shaped as letters of the law.
According to the newspaper Long War Journal, which has been monitoring the use of statistics attack UAV, South American flying boats stormed the various targets located on the territory of Pakistan in 2008 — 35 times in 2010 — 117 times in 2011 — 64 times and 46 times in 2012 year. The vast majority of these operations carried out within the framework of programs from the CIA to prevent possible acts of terrorism directed against the American people. According to Ben Emmerson, the death of civilian persons in time of using shock UAV can be equated to military atrocities. According to the Bureau of disk imaging British investigative journalism since June 2004 and ending September 2012 on the territory of Pakistan as a result of drone air strikes killed up to 3,325 people, of them up to 881 people were civilians, including 176 babies died. It is reported that the effectiveness of these attacks is quite small — around 2%, only 2% of those killed — it's pretty high-level terrorists.
The result of the investigation, which will hold a General Assembly of the United Nations, could be a ban on the use of shock UAV. But the decision will be taken only in this case, if the United States does not impose a veto on the decision, which is very clear. The right to veto the introduction of own all permanent members of UN Security Council, including the United States. Earlier in the report of the UN Human Rights of 2010, Philip Austin independent expert on extrajudicial killings told about the facts fairly recognizable use of UAVs for the destruction of suspected terrorists U.S. intelligence services, Israel and the Russian Federation, with all that this technique have also Iran and China.
Editor in chief of the magazine "National Defense" and the chairman of the Public Council under the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation Igor Korochenko stated his position on the issue of radio "Voice of Russia". According to him, the fluctuations in the fact that the U.S. is rather inefficient use their new military technology in Pakistan, no. At first, this may be due to the lack of high-quality data intelligence services. Shock UAV hit the target with the help of others. Do they have the statements that are, or have a special control center in Langley, or in any of the divisions of the Pentagon.
All modern U.S. drones are connected to the command center via satellite. With all of this UAV operator can be in any corner of the globe, while the management of combat operations conducted specifically on the ground in Afghanistan or Pakistan. Having received intelligence preparatory information, the operator who is in front of the monitor screen in real-time estimates that he sends camera drone in the coming without the help of others to make decisions — to press the start button missiles or not reap. The final decision is always up man. This means that the premise of possible errors is unfortunate human factor.
The quality of the preparatory intelligence and the quality of UAV operators drums are everything. Often, drones, controlled by the Yankees, mistakenly applied to air strikes on a wedding or funeral processions, taking them for gatherings warlords. Or strikes are on peace ladies and children who are engaged in the forest collecting firewood, and their back is mistaken for militants and cause an airstrike.
No one disputes the fact that the modern South American drones — is remarkable fighting machine. But even they will make mistakes in this case, if they are managed by a person who is on the hands of unreliable or incomplete intelligence information. For example, the South American agent in Pakistan provides information that will be held in the area gathering of militants, and ultimately for a gathering taken someone's wedding or funeral. At this time, the operator in the mode of lack of time and the inability to see the big picture detail perceives congestion civilian officials for the desired goal, resulting in the killing or what is not guilty of civilian persons.
UAV MQ-9 Reaper (Predator B)
MQ-9 Reaper (from the English. Reaper or harvester) — impact reconnaissance drone made by General Atomics Aeronautical Systems for the needs of the Air Force and the U.S. Navy. In addition UAV already supplied by the Air Force in England, Italy and Turkey. Own first flight was made February 2, 2001. UAV was created on the basis of well-known UAV MQ-1 Predator (born predator). Unmanned aircraft can reach speeds of over 400 km / h, and its service ceiling equal 13 thousand meters, the maximum duration of the flight unit is 24 hours. In total, the U.S. Air Force ready to buy up to 276 drum UAV MQ-9 Reaper. According to data for 2011 year in service with the U.S. Air Force was from 63 to 74 similar machines.
UAV MQ-9 Reaper is an improved and extended version of the MQ-1 Predator. Its main difference is the use of a more conventional V-shaped tail, which has a positive V-shaped. Company General Atomics Aeronautical Systems ha
s experienced two layout Predator B with 2 different engines: turbojet Williams FJ44-2A and theater company Honeywell TPE-331-10T. At the time of his interior equipment in the main similar to its predecessor and contains a synthesized aperture radar AN/APY-8 Lynx and infrared optronic sighting system Raytheon AN/ASS-52 (V). Given UAV can do without the problems of the complex role of the military, armed with Hellfire anti-tank or other controlled weapons systems.
At the current time, 2 additional modifications are known machine. Modification of the Block-1 was introduced in April 2012. It differs overestimated by 10-15 hours duration of the flight. Streamlined impact UAV is able to seating 37 hours. Managed to achieve such performance by the refreshed chassis and extra fuel tanks. By disk imaging products, if MQ-9 Reaper to put wings extended length (26.9 meters instead of the regular 20.0 meters), the UAV will be able to be in the sky up to 42 hours.
The version UAV Block-5 was increased propulsion power, also mounted the second radio station to transmit data to multiple ground or air targets, increased capacity drone.
UAV MQ-9 Reaper has 6 points of the suspension: the inner 2 to 680 kg., 2 in the center of the wing at 230-270 kg. 2 and console — to 68-91 kg. With all of this UAV is able to carry up to 14 missiles AGM-114 Hellfire «air-to-ground", while his predecessor was armed with just only with 2 missiles. If necessary, instead of these missiles Reaper can carry four missiles "Hellfire" and 2 bombs with laser guidance system — GBU-12 Paveway II mass of 250 kg. any. He can also use smart bombs Mark 82 with a GPS-guided.
For the needs of the U.S. Navy was created in his aircraft on the basis of Reaper, which received the designation «Mariner». This aircraft is equipped a folding wings and has increased the supplies of fuel, which allows him to stay in the air up to 49 hours. The rearmament of the first U.S. Air Force combat eksadrili the newest model UAV ended in August 2008. Shock UAV MQ-9 Reaper proven themselves in Afghanistan and Iraq. Their main advantage in comparison with the F-16 is the lowest price of the acquisition and operation, long duration of the flight safety of the operators and the ability to work during long flights in shift work mode.
Sources disk imaging: