In the basis for their own amazing story "did not appear in the lists," the writer-soldier Boris Vasilyev put the legend that the last defender of the Brest fortress stood right up to the middle of April 1942.
In parting, he had gathered around him to say the Germans: "The fortress did not fall: it just bled out. I — the last drop of it … ".
The enemies were shocked. "The German Lieutenant loud and hard, as if on parade, shouted a command, and the men, clicked his heels, raised their right tool" on guard. " And the German General, slightly paused and put his hand to his cap. "
Perhaps it is — a beautiful legend. But it served as the basis for thousands of prototypes of our hero, a hero who met the enemy from the first minutes of the war on all fronts from the Arctic over to the Dark Sea. Most of them were killed by unknown, the names of many other undeservedly forgotten. But specifically to their favorites pace that began that ended in May 1945 Lofty victory.
On some of them we wish now to tell.
A couple of years back, "Komsomolskaya Pravda" recalled the story of how one day a Russian artillery fought with a column of German tanks. Fortunately, it was possible to preserve the history of its name. It was Sergeant Nicholas Sirotinin, originally from Orel. He was only 19 years old.
In July 1941, the Belarusian city Krichev broke through the 4th Armored Division's 2nd Panzer Group, commanded by the famous German tank General Heinz Guderian. Part of the 13th Russian army, are opposed to it, retreating. Among them was also the 6th Infantry division, in which Nicholas served as a gunner guns. How knows hosted Orlowski collection of "good name", it was necessary to cover the withdrawal of retreating. "There remain two people with a gun," — said the commander of the battery. Nicholas volunteered. The second was the commander himself.
On the morning of July 17 on the highway struck a column of German tanks.
— Kohl took position on a hill right on the collective farm. Cannon is buried in the highest rye, but it was clearly visible highway and bridge over a rivulet Dobrost — says Natalia Morozova, Director Krichevsky museum.
When the head tank came to the bridge, Kohl's first shot knocked him. The second shell he set fire to armored personnel carrier, bringing up the rear.
Here, you need the brakes. Since it is not entirely clear to this day, why Kohl remained in the field one. But the version is. He, apparently, was precisely task — to make the bridge "plug", knocked out the lead car Nazis. The lieutenant also adjusted the fire at the bridge, and later, apparently caused by congestion of the other German tank fire our guns, because of the river. Reliably understood that the lieutenant was wounded, and later he went in the direction of our positions. There is speculation that Kohl had to retreat to his own, doing puzzle. But … He had 60 rounds. And he was!
Two German tanks tried to sneak the head tank from the bridge, but also were hit. Armored vehicle tried to overcome the river Dobrost not on the bridge, but got stuck in the muddy shore, where it found the next round. Kohl's shot and fired, knocking the tank for tank …
Guderian's tanks ran into Kohl Sirotinina as the Brest Fortress. Already burned 11 tanks and six armored personnel carriers! At least half of them burned one Sirotinin (and got some artillery from across the river.)
Almost two o'clock this unusual battle the Germans could not understand where the entrenched Russian battery. And when they came to Colin position at that there are only 3 shells. Offered to surrender. Kohl responded by firing at them with a rifle, and died in the shootout.
Officer of the 4th Armored Division Henfeld then wrote in his diary: "July 17, 1941, Falconer, near Krychau. In the evening buried unknown Russian fighter. He was alone at the gun, shot the long column of tanks and infantry, and died. All were amazed at his courage … Oberst (Colonel) in front of the tomb was that if all the men were fighting Hitler, as this Russian, that would capture the whole world. Triple-fired volleys of rifles. All the same it is — a Russian, if such an admiration? "
The Germans were also instructed local residents to write a native soldier, he died, and that they should be proud of him. But now, in the village of Falconer grave, in which the Germans buried Kohl, no. Three years after the war if the remains were transferred to a mass grave, the field was plowed and planted. It was only in 1960, the staff of the Central Archive of the Russian Army had scouted all the details of the feat. Nicholas Sirotinin was posthumously awarded the Order of the Russian War I level. The monument to the hero also set, but ungainly, with a phony gun and just here and there on the sidelines.
Sister Nicholas told "Komsomolskaya Pravda" that Krichevtsov take care to provide Kohl to the title of Hero of the Russian Union. Only in vain: for design documents certainly needed his photo, at least some. A photo cards do not: only missing in the evacuation. So that after half a century of heroic fallen hero official title can not receive.
And for a number of days from the last fight Nikolai Sirotina, but further south, in the direction of Kiev from Zhitomir were columns of tanks of the 1st Tank Group Ewald von Kleist. Her quick dash broke on July 11 at the village on the river Irpen Kapitonovka. There, German tanks and motorized infantry came upon concrete pillboxes Kiev fortified area.
Thus began the defense of Kiev, which lasted 71 day — and the heroic and tragic page majestically Russian war … But at the moment we are — this is not epic, but of incomparable, but almost forgotten the heroism of the fallen defenders of the bunkers.
Patrons huge, with five casemates, extended along the mound, depth 10 m pillbox number 205 under the command of Lieutenant Basil Vetrova stood in the way of the advancing Germans right up to the middle of August! The commander of the fortified area allowed the soldiers to move away — they did not use a resolution. Winds said on behalf of their own fighter, "his oath — not to give the enemy pillbox — we will do." Neither the incessant attacks on the enemy, nor the approaching famine had not broken heroes. Only with the coming of our common units at the site vetrovtsy left tormented fortress …
Dot on the outskirts of the Vita-post was in a deep rear of the Nazis, but his garrison and not thought to throw a snow-white flag. The Germans then walled up all the entrances. The soldiers were defending not a week, as was foreseen by designers bunker, not a month, but … before the end of 1941! Until the last of his patron did not let go of the gun, dying of hunger … Unfortunately, not even preserved the names of its heroic defenders.
Until the last days of Kiev defense, that is, until the end of September, fought dot to the north of the village Lyutezh. He stopped only when the Nazis were able to let the ground poisonous smoke.
Surely, it is better than the official communiques or brochures GlavPUR propagandists, they say the courage Russian fighters feedback from our enemies.
From a letter to his homeland German soldier: "Dear Ingrid! A certain number of days we storm the building of these madmen … Their construction seems impossible to kill. Shoot … almost constantly, but they come to life again and again, bringing us g
reat harm … Of all of the experience I realized that started the war — not a walk in Europe, and in it we uvyaznem to the ears. "
Here is a German officer wrote: "For a few days we knock out of the casemates of these fanatics. Their resistance worthy of the highest praise, because they remain in the dungeons, even if we undermine them. Until I beheld neither the 1st prisoner, although I personally hunt to take someone … I'm not enough of a fighter. I will try to do everything to kill the enemy, but sees God, he is worthy to be worshiped in front of him or at least appreciated. "
Quite indescribable thing happened in the first days of the war in the North-West direction. We are talking about extensively known in narrow circles of researchers' stories rasseynyayskogo the tank. " Since it tried to advertise the notorious Suvorov (Rezun) as a confirmation of the "aggressive plans of Stalin," her or ignore or deny.
Rezun really wrote nonsense. Almost follow: "In June of 1941 in Lithuania, near the town of Rasseynyaya, one Russian KB for the coming days held back the 4th Panzer Group. Panzer Group — a quarter of all German tank forces. A Russian tank — against the German Panzer Army. Unbeknownst to Sergeant — against Colonel-General Hoepner. But there is nothing to be surprised: Sergeant — from the army, which was preparing for war, the senior sergeant — one severe KB, a German colonel-general was preparing to easy victories, to operetta war. In the German colonel-general languid tanks no. "
Rezun vigorously begins to expose us very pochetaemy historian Aleksei Isaev. "Tank group does not occur on the same road on which hid KB, and on a number of parallel, on a fairly broad front. And if some of it could be delayed by one day KB, blocking the road to the bridge over the river Dubysa, other armored divisions moved on adjacent roads deep into the Soviet Union, even knowing of the existence of this very KB under Rasseynyaem "- entirely reasonable Isaev explains. Next, turning shelf corps and divisions, the names of Lithuanian towns and villages, it is as carefully explains that, namely, one German division (6th tank) really was very clumsily counterattacked our 3rd Mechanized Corps. Mechanized Corps was broken — in the main due to the competent application of the Germans artillery, rocket launchers, "Nebelpfelfer" and aviation. Head Tank-Automotive Management at Northwestern Front Colonel Poluboyarov July 11, 1941 reported: "3rd Mechanized Corps (Kurkin) all died (in fact, a huge part of our technology have undermined themselves, because it was a huge amount of damage and ran out of fuel. — KM . RU). We derive a while and have already collected remains of up to 400 people who came out of the environment, from the 2nd Armored Division (Solyankin). "
But this one KV Division (but not the entire 2nd Panzer, has been criticized as reasonably Isaev) was able to perform a detour and drive a wedge into the enemy's battle lines division. He closed the road connecting it rears, and battle lines: kamfgruppy "Routh" and "Zekedorf."
We explain that kamfgruppa — this is a temporary organizational structure that created the Germans in their own divisions, which includes tanks, motorized infantry, artillery, combat engineers. Usually, the panzer divisions were divided into two, rarely three battle groups. Often, part of the battle group cut one way to enhance the corps level.
Based on the foregoing, Isaev justifies, in general, it is clear, "the 4th Tank group — Is a steamroller width of a few 10 km s. Neither tank, seems to be quite good as it was, just on a physical level could not stop multi-million army advancing on a broad front. The words of the stalled tank group can only be regarded as evidence of incompetence creator of such expressions in operational matters. "
But the question at this point — not about the tactical or operational matters, and the heroism of a group of people going to certain destruction in the name of protecting their own homeland. And in the name of Victory, which they certainly never see again.
About the exploits of Russian tankers under Rasseynyaem most did not write our homegrown propagandists, and Erhard Raus, then a colonel and commander kamfgruppy. Almost all war he spent on the Eastern front, going to Moscow, Stalingrad and Kursk, and finished it in the post as commander of the 3rd Panzer Army in the rank of colonel. Of the 427 pages of his memoirs, specifically describing the combat actions, 12 are dedicated to this two-day battle with the only Russian tank.
Here's an excerpt: "The only road leading to our beachhead, locked super-heavy tank KV-1. Russian tank vpribavok was able to kill the telephone wires that connect us with the staff of the division. Although the enemy's intentions were unclear, we began to fear an attack from the rear. I immediately ordered the 3rd battery of Lieutenant Vengenrota of the 41 battalion of tank destroyers to take a position in the rear. To strengthen our anti-tank defenses, I had to deploy a 180-degree battery is next to the 150-mm howitzers. 3rd company of Lieutenant Gebhardt of the 57th Combat Engineer Battalion, Panzer was ordered mine the road and its neighborhood. Give us the tanks (half of the 65th Tank Battalion, Major Schenk) were placed in the woods. They were ordered to be ready to counter-attack, as it will be needed.
Time passed, but the enemy tank, blocked roads, did not move, even though at times shooting in the direction of Rasseynyaya. In the afternoon of June 24 spies came back, which I sent to clarify the situation. They said that apart from this tank did not find any troops or equipment that could buzz us. The officer who commanded this unit, made the logical conclusion that it is — a single tank of the squad that attacked a militant group "background Zeckendorf."
Although the risk of an attack faded away, should take measures to quickly kill this terrible hindrance or, at least, to drive away the Russian tank away. His fire he had set fire to 12 trucks with supplies that came to us from Rasseynyaya … All samples around the tank failed. Car or stuck in the mud, or faced with disparate Russian units are still wandering in the woods.
That's why I ordered a battery of Lieutenant Vengenrota. Not so long ago received 50-mm anti-tank guns, sneak through the woods to come to the tank at a distance of effective fire and kill him. The battery commander and his brave soldiers gladly accepted this dangerous assignment and went to work with full confidence that it will not last very long … Suddenly, someone introduced the tank is damaged and abandoned crew, because he was on the road quite motionless , presenting a perfect target. (You can imagine for yourself the disappointment of our comrades who, after shedding a few hours dragged on gun emplacements, if it was true.) At one point slammed his shot the first of our anti-tank guns, flash blinked and put her silvery trail right in tank. The distance does not exceed 600 meters flashed a ball of fire, there was a staccato rattle. A direct hit! This was followed by the second and third hit.
The officers and soldiers shouted encouraging, as if the audience on a joyous performance: "Caught! Bravo! With a tank over! "Tank did not react until our guns do not have
gained 8 hits. Then he turned his tower, neatly groped goal and began to methodically destroy our guns single-shot 50-mm guns. Our two 50-mm guns were blown to pieces, the other two were seriously injured. The personnel of the lost several men killed and wounded. Lieutenant Vengenrot took the survivors back in order to avoid needless loss. Only after the coming of the night, he was able to take out the gun. Russian tank as before tightly closed the road. "
Next Rouse as a great strategic operations, said that he had just decided not to do away with the Russian tank. He even managed to take away from their own colleagues Zeckendorf leading the battle for a foothold, he needed 88-mm anti-aircraft guns. He would send a couple of times a group of sappers saboteurs. He even made a tank attack — only to distract the attention of Russian anti-aircraft guns and roll for direct fire.
And after only a few direct hits reversals his armor, writes on Rouse, "our" David "climbed to the defeated" Goliath "in a vain attempt to open the tower hatch. Despite all efforts, his cover is not budge. At one point the barrel of the weapon began to move, and our men rushed away in fear. Only one of the engineers kept composure and quickly shoved a hand grenade into the hole made by a shell at the bottom of the tower. Rang out a muffled explosion, and the cover flap came off to the side. Inside the tank were the bodies of the brave crew who have previously received only wounded. Deeply shocked by this heroism, we buried them with full military honors. "
Four tankers, whose names we do not know to this day, two days, if not waged war with tank group, but nearly a half Panzer Division. They are responsible for the day of the fight — 12 trucks, 4 antitank guns, one anti-aircraft gun, a few warped tanks, and several 10-s killed and died of wounds Germans. This — in itself an outstanding outcome for themselves, taking into account the fact that up to 1944-1945 years. the vast majority of even the victorious battles of our loss is higher than the German.
But it is — only the direct loss of the Germans. Indirect — the loss of Zeckendorf, which, reflecting the Russian strike, could not get help from a group of Routh. Accordingly, for the same reason, the loss of our 2nd Armored Division were smaller than in the case, if upheld Rouse Zeckendorf.
But perhaps more important than the direct and indirect losses of men and equipment was the loss of the Germans time. The Wehrmacht June 22, 1941 had on the entire Eastern Front with 17 armored divisions, including the 4th Panzer Group — 4 armored divisions. One of them kept alone HF. One day delay of one division — very many in the criteria when the German panzer groups advancing to the highest pace, breaking the defense of the Red Army and arranging her a huge amount of "boiler".
Because of such and such "incidents" as an unexpected tank on the road, a single instrument with a single 19-year-old fighter, or a lone dot, where the last gunner prefer delivery starvation death, the whole mechanism of slender plan "Barbarossa" gone to the dogs. Ordinary and nameless soldiers began to cook as a victory over the most at the time a powerful army in the world.
As Konstantin Simonov wrote in "Living and the Dead," "the full price of their own affairs did not know thousands of other people in other places tyschah fought to the death with an unplanned Germans tenacity.
They did not know and could not know that the generals still triumphantly advancing on Moscow, Leningrad and Kiev German Army after 15 years would call this July 41th, the month of misguided expectations, success does not become a victory.
They could not predict the future of these confessions slightly bitter enemy, but almost any of them then, in July, put his hand to the fact that all this is exactly what happened. "
Add to that is nothing.