Firearm constantly evolving since its invention nearly 800 years ago. From primitive guns to machine guns — represent 10 of the most noticeable patterns in the history of guns that have changed the situation on the battlefield and beyond.
Hand gun, XIII century
In the X century China has developed a wide range of powder guns, known as the «fiery spear» and «fire dragon», also flamethrowers and fireworks. First real firearm that used gunpowder to launch a projectile, can be attributed to the Yuan Dynasty in the XIII century. Including a bronze hand gun he was holding one man and burned another. Range projectile left much to be desired, as well as the accuracy of the sight, but the smoke, fire, and thunder brought the enemy into confusion
Gatling gun, 1862
Richard Gatling invented one of the first .50 caliber machine guns with a rate of over 700 rounds per minute. His 6 spinning shafts are driven by a handle, with all this happening at once gravity feed ammunition in the barrels. The machine gun was first used in the American civilian war, but proved to be more effective in the Spanish-American War, and the British used it willingly in colonial wars.
Colt «Peacemaker», 1873
Samuel Colt did not invent the gun, but he was the first who started their conveyor instead of creating handmade trained gunsmiths. Thus was born the famous «Peacemaker», aka Colt 45. Initially designed for the U.S. cavalry, he became widely known during the feral West. One of its versions, Frontier Six Shooter, was equipped with a .44-40 caliber Winchester cartridges, so the Cowboys could use the same ammunition in pistols and rifles.
Machine gun «Maxim», 1883
Sir Hiram Maxim was South American inventor who emigrated to Europe. He worked, for example, over the fire-extinguishing systems and steam plane, but the most successful of his brainchild became a hundred percent automatic machine gun. It should not have to reload every time manually as Gatling gun — recoil force of the shot threw out the pocket and charged the new cartridge. «Maxim» was even more efficient and reliable than rivals. Both belligerents in World War I used a machine gun, he remained in service until 1960.
Browning M2, 1933
Developed in the late World War, M2 equipped with the first versions of the cooling water, which was later changed to the air, which required the introduction of a heavy barrel. M2 machine gun with its weight of about 40 kg is a massive tool, but .50 caliber muzzle energy provides four times the ordinary rifle. The bullet that «Browning» hit sheet metal inch thickness and lethal when released from a distance of two miles. M2 remains as before the service, but its appearance has changed radically.
«Garand M1», 1936
Canadian John Garand developed the first automatic rifle in the world. Officially known as M1 .30 caliber, this rifle became known Garand. The mechanism uses part of the energy of the highest gas pressure generated during firing to remove the sleeve and charge a new cartridge. This gives a higher rate than other designs closures, although holder accommodates a total of eight rounds. Nearly 4 million M1 were released for World War II, and General Patton referred to the South American headquarters Garand «the greatest weapon ever created.»
Major Uziel Gal invented 9mm submachine gun for the Israeli army, inventing blowback design, which in the latter position the front covers a part of the trunk. This reduced the overall length of the gun barrel length at. Telescopic gate wraps around the breech. This reduced the overall length of the instruments and together with the long handle made «Uzi» light and small-sized. Popularity forced herself not to expect — auto crews adopted it instead of a pistol, Special Forces loved him for convenience and compactness, just as issued more than 10 million copies.
Kalashnikov when Misha started to develop an assault rifle for the Russian Red Army in 1940, he knew that the instrument should be a regular, cheap and reliable — fire power here was more important than accuracy. As a result, 7.62-mm AK-47, of course, is the most effective and popular instrument in history. Huge gaps between moving parts made AK-47 in the manufacture of conventional and resistant to sand, dust and mud. Indescribable sturdiness, ease of maintenance and ease of use have made it a favorite weapon of insurgents, freedom fighters and terrorists around the world — produced more than 75 million «Kalash».
«Glock 17», 1982
Austrian Gaston Glock came quickly from the world of the polymer industry than weapons because its revolutionary 9mm Glock 17 pistol is a common, but actually quite manufactured from heavy-duty plastic, except for the barrel. His frame is lighter and stronger than metal, besides absorbs some recoil. Fitted with a 17-round magazine, improved ergonomics and 3 are independent fuses «Glock 17» rapidly captured two thirds of the market state orders U.S. militia.
Perhaps the most innovatorskim tool recent years is XM-25, also known as «The Punisher» — a 25-millimeter grenade launcher. Thanks to the laser designator with the distance measurement shells can explode in the air at the correct height above a specific point to hit enemies in a trench or behind a wall in the shelter. 5 XM-25 were released on a trial basis in 2010 and following the implementation in Afghanistan have received great reviews. But according to the professionals, the price of XM-25, is more than $ 30,000, may slow down until the next prospect.