Adolf Hitler was not only a supporter of non-standard solutions and a positive attitude to new ideas and projects, and personally cared for their development. Work on the implementation of the multi-chamber German guns began to be held in 1942. At the same time, the head of the Ministry of weapons reported on an unusual project Adolf Hitler. He promptly ordered to make a functioning model with the smallest caliber to demonstrate the abilities of modern guns. Design and creation took place in the company «Rochling» together with the company «Fried Kruapp AG». By September 1943, a working model was created — multi-caliber 20mm gun. The demonstration was carried out in a hurry — a little earlier, British planes caused severe damage to the German rocket research center at Peenemunde. After the demonstration, and fear of retribution for the development of weapons, rockets «V-2", Adolf Hitler gave the order to the developer company «Rochling», to urgently make 50 units of new guns «HDP». Military-building organization "OT-Zentrale» was ordered to build two firing positions. They wanted to build on the coast of the English Channel, in such a way, that guns could keep fire on the British capital — London.
The very multi gun was a very exciting development, the abbreviated title of «HDP» meant "high-pressure pump." In addition, the gun was carried to the class as a weapon of retaliation «V-3" (reference number 3). The gun had a lot of nicknames and titles, such as "English gun, "" Centipede "," Hard-working Lischen "and" Dude ".
The main difference from the standard tools used to break into the trunk of a single charge, the gun was used in a multi-way multi-shot acceleration. It consisted of the following: a settlement equal segments very longish barrel chambers have been made to accommodate the additional charges. They were made at an obtuse angle to the muzzle of the barrel. Shot, lay in the breech gun and the initial movement was reported to him also lay the powder charge into the breech. Next shot, powering along the bore, suicide charges in additional chamber, reported additional speed. Undermining additional powder charges carried by electricians. In the end, the shot left the barrel with a speed of 1500 m / s, making it likely merits a shot at distances of 160-170 km. For the caliber of 150mm artillery round that was unheard of range.
The arrangement and design
The basis of the design was the barrel. It is a structure of 32 pieces. Elements — part of the trunk and additional chambers. All the elements gathered in the concrete vault, ready trunk was set at the estimated elevation angle of 55 degrees. The barrel ended with one hand breech, on the other side of the muzzle. The total length of the gun was equal to 124 meters. The resulting design was a tribute to weigh 62 tons, but due to the need to strengthen the reliability of the barrel, the overall weight has increased by 14 tons. The barrel had no rifling, suitable for modern guns.
Especially for these guns was developed unusual shell — its length was a little more than 3 meters long and weighs 140 pounds. 25 pounds was given to the explosive charge. Although caliber gun was 150mm, the designers met in sub-caliber projectile performance of 110mm.
Because of the lack of rifling in the barrel, which is assigned to an ordinary gun shot rotation required for flight stabilization, stabilization of flight feathers of the tail ensured multi gun shot. The plumage was disclosed after leaving the barrel of the spring release. There were other versions of piercing projectiles from 110 to 80mm. The weight of such shells ranged from 127 to 80 pounds. They had a 4-6 folding stabilizer.
Difficulties «V-3 '
While the business has shown a satisfactory outcome, tests the serial layout first spring of 1944 passed with bolshennymi difficulties. Designed projectiles in flight did not get the desired stabilization. Although the tests, in principle, have shown that the instrument can be used as intended — to remote real goals. Prepyadstviya stabilization of shots flowed subsequent difficulty — the shells for the gun is manufactured in quantity bolshennom, shells are now had a structural defect. At the time of the test has been done for more than 25 thousand shells. The production capacity was 10 thousand rounds of shells a month. This amount was not accidental, because rate of gun «HDP» 1 was shot in 5 minutes. 50 guns in an hour could create 600 shots. Within 24 hours, they were able to produce 14,400 shots. According to the plans of Hitler guns had all day to bombard the capital of Great Britain with benign distance.
In this rendering of course blame the designers of the company «Rochling», as it became clear later, they had the missing amount of aerodynamic research of new shells, which led to a structural error in the selection of feathers stabilize the projectile. In the coming transpired next miscalculation — set at a fixed elevation angle and direction was not taken into account the correction of rotation of the earth. But developers and project managers lucky that they did not have an identified shortcomings gun report Adolf Hitler, because in this case they probably expected the shooting, British aircraft virtually leveled built emplacements for 50 guns. A little later, the location of indirect fire area fell under the control of Canadian infantrymen.
There was another discrepancy that was resolved in the course of work — missing the initial velocity of the projectil
e, and as a result a small range of defeat. By developing lured 6 companies have long been designed and built for the German armament and equipment. Soon made the required shell, trimmed little difficulty gate.
The development of the project «HDP»
However, Hitler did not close the project is a promising long-range gun — he gave the order to revise the draft by the possibility of using them in the field criteria. The gun was built with a reduced barrel length of 50 meters. The trunk was also an integral and consisted of 12 parts of the trunk, with 2 chambers for the charges and 13 inserts. Breech of the howitzer used by the caliber of 150mm «sFH 18." The total weight of the modern gun was 28 tons. The gun is the title of «LRK15 F58». To fire the gun the latest altered shell, it was the arrow-150mm «Sprgr. 4481. " Projectile weight equal to 97 kilograms, the main charge weighed 5 pounds, extra charges (24 units) had a total weight of 72.8 kilograms. All charges reported total projectile initial velocity 935 m / s, which enabled him to hit targets at a distance of 50 km.
It was built four guns «LRK15 F58». They were placed near the town of Trier angle of elevation of 34 degrees. The direction of firing — the city of Luxembourg. Distance to the town — 42.5 kilometers. Calculation — 30 troops. Were part of the 705 languid artdiviziona. In the battles have been applied only two guns. First combat use — 30.12.1944 year. Participated in the battles with the army of the United States 3. Total with 2 guns were produced 157 shots. At the end of the war the U.S. military seized one of the guns, and brought it to explore its terrain.
The main properties of «V-3":
— caliber guns — 150mm;
— type of ammunition — Subcaliber;
— caliber ammunition — 110mm;
— Barrel Length — 826 calibres (150m);
— Total weight — 76 tons;
— weight of ammunition — 140 pounds;
— the initial speed of ammunition — 1500 m / s;
— range of fire — 150-165 km;
— elevation — fixed 55 degrees;
— number of pieces — 32 units;
— shell length — 3.1 (2.5) m.
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