Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

If an elephant whale nalezet who gets sboret?

Associate incomparable — a very pleasurable pastime. Question from the title of the article, despite the light color dibilizm, is under a deep base. This question was asked in connection with the sudden onset of figures characterizing the introduction of carrier strike groups in local wars.

Perhaps begin our discussion with the famous «Desert Storm.» For a role in the operation against Iraq, International Coalition lured 2,000 planes, the base of which were strike aircraft, tactical aircraft the U.S. Air Force, including:

— 249 fighters in the air superiority F-16;
— 120 fighter F-15C;
— 24 fighter-bomber F-15E;
— 90 stormtroopers «Harrier»;
— 118 bombers, F-111;
— 72 aircraft near fire support A-10
In addition, part of the U.S. Air Force grouping consisted of 26 strategic bombers B-52, 44 drum F-117A «Stealth», a huge number of aircraft electronic warfare and AWACS, scouts, air command and refueling tankers. U.S. Air Force based at airbases in Turkey, Saudi Arabia and Qatar.

Marine aviation included 146 F/A-18 fighter-bombers and 72 carrier-based aircraft — Marine Corps, also 68 F-14 fighters, «Tomcat». Naval aviation forces do battle in cramped puzzles and assistance on a single plan with the Air Force.
83 aircraft allocated the RAF, 37 — Air France. Several airplanes identified in Germany, Italy, Belgium, Qatar.
Saudi Air Force included 89 older F-5 fighters and 71 F-15 fighter.

International coalition aircraft performed about 70,000 sorties, of which 12,000 were in carrier aviation. Here it is — mind-boggling figure! Contribution Navy carrier-based aircraft in operation «Desert Storm» was only 17% …

It does not fit in with the style of carrier strike groups, as razushitelnyh «democratizers.» No doubt, 17 percent — that’s a lot, but all the same, it gives reason to believe that the operation «Desert Storm» could completely do without aircraft carriers. For comparison — 24 «overland» fighter-bomber F-15E «Strike Eagle» completed in January 1991 2142 sorties over Iraq — Command lozhilo great hopes for promising aircraft kitted sighting and navigation system IR LANTIRN, amplifying the light of stars in 25,000 times.

Perhaps the main striking force of the Coalition were tactical cruise missiles «Tomahawk»? What a shame it did not sound, no. 2 months were spent least 1000 «Battle Axe» that looks just fun on the background of the success of aviation. For example, during «Operation Desert Storm» B-52G bombers carried out in 1624 sorties and overthrew 25,700 tons of bombs.

A similar pattern occurred in 1999 during the bombing of Yugoslavia. NATO commanders concentrated in Italy (Aviano Air Base, Vicenza, Istrana, Gedi, Piacenza, Cervia, Ancona, Amendola, Brindisi, Sigonela Trapani) group in an amount of about 170 combat aircraft the U.S. Air Force (F-16, A-10A, ea-6B , F-15C and a squadron (12 aircraft) aircraft F-117A), 20 aircraft the RAF (Tornado IDS / ADV and Harrier Gr.7); French Air Force 25 aircraft («Jaguar», «Mirage-2000», «Mirage» F-1C); Italian Air Force 36 aircraft (F-104, «Tornado» IDS, «Tornado» ECR) and about 80 combat aircraft of NATO countries.
With air bases on the territory of England (Feaford and Mildenhall) operated eight-52H and 5-1B and airbase Whiteman (USA, Missouri) — 6 «stealth» B-2.

For reconnaissance and target were involved two American aircraft E-8 JSTAR (Ramstein Air Base, Germany) and 5 U-2 reconnaissance (Istres Air Base, France), and 10 American and gollandaskih P-3C and EC-130 (Air Force Base in Rota, Spain) . Then these numbers increased, reaching the end of the operation the value 1000.

In the Adriatic Sea dangling carrier «Theodore Roosevelt» U.S. Navy, which was carrying 79 aircraft for a variety of tasks, of which only 24 F/A-18 were applied for strikes. AUG was closer to all areas of Yugoslavia, because the reaction time of its wing was the lowest — 28 carrier-based fighters F-14 «Tomcat» flew to support virtually all drum groups going from air bases in Italy. Also, F-14 target was illuminated, providing combat sorties A-10 attack aircraft. Worked hard over 5 decked AWACS E-2 «Hawkeye», constantly covering the air situation over Yugoslavia. But how annoying it may sound, the results of their actions lost on the background scale of the operation.

The overall picture is this: NATO aircraft completed 35,278 sorties, of which the share of the deck of an aircraft carrier air wing «Theodore Roosevelt» had 3,100 sorties. Not a lot.

Nuclear aircraft carrier company were amphibious assault ship of the U.S. Navy «Nassau», which were 8 VTOL AV-8B, as «defective aircraft carriers» — an old French «Fosh» (Wing — 14 stormtroopers «Super Etandard», 4 spy «Etandard IVP»), the Italian «Giuseppe Garbaldi» (Wing — 12 stormtroopers AV-8B) and the British «Invincible» (Wing — 7 AV-8B). These deck aircraft performed during the operation 430 sorties, ie perceive only a symbolic role, covering the area of ​​Italy from possible air attacks from Yugoslavia.

Ultimately — deck-based aircraft during the bombing of Yugoslavia has fulfilled only 10% of the tasks. Again proved of little harsh AUG, and their intervention in the conflict was faster PR action.

Continuing our theoretical studies, we can come to believe that floating airfield anyway, at some point, will have to come to the shore, where it experiences a gratifying aircraft, flying from land aerodromes. Deck aircraft, because of their specific criteria based usually have «trimmed» TTX and limited combat load. Number of carrier-based aircraft is strictly limited by the size of the ship, because the deck

The overall picture is this: NATO aircraft completed 35,278 sorties, of which the share of the deck of an aircraft carrier air wing «Theodore Roosevelt» had 3,100 sorties. Not a lot.

Nuclear aircraft carrier company were amphibious assault ship of the U.S. Navy «Nassau», which were 8 VTOL AV-8B, as «defective aircraft carriers» — an old French «Fosh» (Wing — 14 stormtroopers «Super Etandard», 4 spy «Etandard IVP»), the Italian «Giuseppe Garbaldi» (Wing — 12 stormtroopers AV-8B) and the British «Invincible» (Wing — 7 AV-8B). These deck aircraft performed during the operation 430 sorties, ie perceive only a symbolic role, covering the area of ​​Italy from possible air attacks from Yugoslavia.

Ultimately — deck-based aircraft during the bombing of Yugoslavia has fulfilled only 10% of the tasks. Again proved of little harsh AUG, and their intervention in the conflict was faster PR action.

Continuing our theoretical studies, we can come to believe that floating airfield anyway, at some point, will have to come to the shore, where it experiences a gratifying aircraft, flying from land aerodromes. Deck aircraft, because of their specific criteria based usually have «trimmed» TTX and limited combat load. Number of carrier-based aircraft is strictly limited by the size of the ship, because the deck F/A-18 — a compromise between fighters, attack planes and bombers. «Land» Aviation does not need such hybrids: special fighter gains advantages in the air F-15 or Su-27, «sharpened» under dogfight, other things being equal criteria tear as Tuzik warmer small deck «Hornet». At the same time special shock F-15E or Su-34 which have a huge combat load.

A few words in defense of the F/A-18 «Hornet» — the designers managed to do all the same lightweight fighter applicable to base on the deck, with all this he can still drag decency bomb load and dump it on sighting the enemy’s head. Electronics, headquartered in additional container, makes it likely that the use of point tools (Mig-29, for example, deprived of such power). Therefore, taking into account the specificity of local wars, F/A-18 — one of the best aircraft for the price aspect / effektitvnost.

Taking into account all of the above, the introduction of carrier-based aircraft for ground attacks ineffective. Then why build them in batches U.S.? Neuzh something usefulness of these expensive and massive «death machines» less than that of the truck?
The private discussions we missed one small detail — an aircraft carrier, it is, first, naval guns.

Amusing Geography

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?


That is — the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Usually flat maps distort the distance, because the dimensions of the oceans do not seem so significant (Gerard Mercator certainly hurt for such a word). Real dimensions of the Pacific can only be assessed on the globe. And they are impressive. Right narrow strip stretched coast of North America. In the center of the attentive reader can see the speck of Hawaii. At the top of the North Aleutian Islands and visible piece of Alaska. Japan and Australia with such angle is not seen — before they even swim and swim. Our homeland is in general on the other side of the Earth. And where the ice cap of Antarctica? Hence it is also obscured by Straseni sizes Pacific. Dimensions of the Atlantic or Indian Ocean more enormous — though what the reader can satisfy himself of the truth of my words, without the help of others turning the globe. It would be truer to call our planetoid «Ocean».

That this state of affairs to be reckoned navies of all countries in the world. RF’s maritime boundary with no special problems — pack ice of the Arctic Ocean to protect the Arctic coast of the Urals, Siberia and the Far East reliable though what the Coast Guard. «Marquesas puddles» — Dark Sea and Gulf of Finland can tightly cover the ground forces and Air Force. Much worse situation in the Far East — a very big place and a lot of tough-minded neighbors, dreamers get this «tidbit.» Underdevelopment of these areas and horseradish climate — on the coast of the Okhotsk Sea is only one big town Magadan (live 90 thousand lucky according to the National Census) — makes a quiet danger annexation Far East, but at the same time a military attack on Kamchatka besmyssleno — how time the enemy troops will wade out to Moscow? 30 years? Conclusion — the security of the Far East, as well as it should, the integrity of the Russian Federation, is outside the military plane. Need to develop industry, transport network and correct demographics Far East.
As we see, we do not have any Russian Navy’s interests in the world’s oceans, beaches tightly covered Arctic ice. Overseas colonies are not available, so sixth sushi available. More problems delivers the land border, but it is not the prerogative of the Navy.

In the United States the situation is the reverse. The North — sluggish border with Canada, in the South — the border with Mexico, only terrible for illegal migrants from Central America.
All the major industrial centers of the U.S., the pillars of the U.S. economy, brought to the coast. The richest states — California, Virginia, large agglomeration: Boston-New York-Washington and San Francisco-Los Angeles-San Diego — stretched wide strip along both oceans. Readers beheld, in what are removing the 51st U.S. state (Hawaii) and Alaska, about everyone has heard about. Guam and the other overseas areas controlled by the Washington administration — all this puts South American admirals before the development of a massive fleet to protect these areas and monitoring of transoceanic communications. The problem with Taiwan, Korea, China rising, the defense of Singapore, restless Philippines — exclusively in one of Southeast Asia U.S. has a bunch of problems.

Navy must withstand at least what the enemy non-nuclear conflict (already a theorem that niodnogo modern power not dare to nuclear attack, all conflicts will be resolved with the introduction of the local method of everyday tools that, in fact, confirms the long-standing practice). Fleet should be able to find at least some ward off the intruder, whether submarine or ship measuring complex, ie keep under control hundreds of thousands of square miles aqua ocean surface.

Efficient operations of the fleet in its composition having a carrier aviation. All other means and «asymmetrical response» have the same price, but, on the order of the smallest capacity. As I’ve read more than once, for guidance beautiful missiles P-700 «Granit» of cosmic system requires intelligence and targeting, operation of which flies in 1 billion. dollars a year!

Last campaign Yamato

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?


Battleship Fleet Pravitelskogo «Yamato» («Japan» translated from Jap.), The largest battleship in the history of mankind.
Full displacement — 73 000 tonnes (3 times more than the languid nuclear missile cruiser «Peter the Great»).
Reservations:
board — 410 mm;
main deck — 200 … 230 mm;
upper deck — 35 … 50 mm;
turrets — 650 mm (forehead), 270 mm (roof);
barbettes CC — up to 560 mm;
wheelhouse — 500 mm (side), 200 mm (roof)

40 … 50 cm metal! Logically, «Yamato» was resistant to at least what means the defeat of those years (all the same question about the 2nd World), impenetrable, invulnerable and unsinkable.

Armament: a 9406 mm guns head-caliber anti-aircraft armament battleship included:
— 24 x 127 mm universal tools
— 152 x 25 mm anti-aircraft machine (50 100 two!)
All this economy is driven by five hundred square meters of radar stations and gunners.

In April 1945, «Yamato» with an escort of one cruiser and 8 destroyers went into its own last campaign. Seasoned Japanese admirals understand what awaits unbeaten battleship, because it is only half-tucked — one way ticket. But even they did not know that it will all happen so fast.
April 7 all Japanese compound was ignominiously drowned in 2 hours. Americans lost 10 aircraft and 12 pilots. Living in the country of the Rising Sun — 3665 people.

In the morning from aircraft carriers of the 58th task force, lies 300 miles (!) From the Japanese squadron took off 280 aircraft. To the goal came only 227, 53 other off course (in those years was not GPS). Despite the massive air defense «Yamato» were 10 aircraft torpedoes and 13 250-kilogram bombs. Battleship-age ultra-secure this fully enough ammunition towers head jerked caliber and «Yamato» went to feed the fish.

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

Aircraft bombs bustles battleship «Musashi», like a Christmas goose


A few months before these events, in October 1944, in the Sibuyan Sea in similar circumstances sank sistership «Yamato» — battleship «Musashi». In general, global history is replete with options death ships from the action deck aircraft. Current cases are rare, in special circumstances.

What relation it may have to the modern sea battle? Powerful «Yamato» stormed weak torpedo «Avenger»: the maximum speed — 380 km / h at the surface and 430 km / h at altitude. Climb — 9 m / s. Reservations available.
This aircraft had a wretched approach angrily firing ship at a distance of hundreds of meters, ie enter the zone defense actions of the Japanese squadron. Modern supersonic «Hornet» even do not have to — at least some, even the most powerful ship SAM («Aegis», C-300, C-400 or C-500 a hypothetical) has one small drawback — the radio horizon.

Out of range

The point is that seemingly mundane as it sounds, the earth is round, and VHF waves travel in straight lines. At a certain distance from the radar, they become tangential surface. All the above — is perfectly visible, the range is limited only by the energy act features radar. Anything below — outside review of modern naval radars.
Radio horizon does not depend on the pulse power, nor the level of radiation losses, nor on target RCS. How is the radio horizon? Geometrically — according to formula D = 4.124vH, where H — the height of the antenna in meters. Ie determining the depth of the antenna is higher — so you can see more.
In reality, everything is more difficult — to affect the detection range of terrain and weather conditions. For example, if the temperature and humidity slowly decrease with height, it decreases the permittivity of air and, as follows, increasing the speed of propagation of radio waves. The line motion in the direction of antenna beams refracted earth surface increases as the radio horizon. Related superrefraction observed in tropical latitudes.

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

MR-700 «boletus» — Severe device


Plane, soaring to a height of 50 meters, is completely invisible from the ship at a distance of more than 40 … 50 km. Dropping to a low maximum height, it can still fly up close to the ship, all of this while remaining unnoticed and as follows neuzvimym.
What did it mean to indexes Russian radar, for example MR-700 «boletus»? 700 — is the detection range in kilometers. At such a distance MR-700 is able to see objects in the upper atmosphere. When objects are detected above the radio horizon, vigilance «boletus» limited only by the energy characteristics of the antenna.

Are there any methods to look beyond the radio horizon? Naturally! The-horizon radar has long been constructed. Longish wave simply reflected from the ionosphere and encircle the Earth. For example, over the horizon radar «Wave», built on the hills near the city of Nakhodka, a range of up to 3,000 km. The only question is the size, cost and power consumption of similar «devices»: phased array «Waves» has a length of 1.5 kilometers.

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

The-horizon radar «Doug» (Object «Chernobl-2»). Sees America consumes 10 megawatts (because built near nuclear power plants). About its size and its ability to be installed on the ship the Navy you can think of yourself

All other methods of «look beyond the horizon» — like air defense system of cosmic satellites or aircraft detection with helicopter and ship the next launch anti-aircraft missiles for homing — smell of schizophrenia. When considering the not to distant, revealed many problems with their realization that thought disappears by itself.

And what about the AUG, you ask. As part of the deck wing aircraft have distant radar detection, the most famous — E-2 «Hawkeye». At least some, even the best ship’s radar can not be compared with radar «Hawkeye» raised above the surface to a height of 10 km. Radio horizon detection of surface targets in this case exceeds 400 km, which gives AUG exceptional ability to control the air and sea space.

Who is stronger: Air Force or Navy aircraft?

Couple E-2D «Hawkeye». On any aircraft carrier, their 4 — 6 pieces


Moreover, AWACs necessarily «hang» around the ship — «Hawkeye», as part of combat air patrol, you can send in a few hundred miles from the ship and spend even more profound interest in radar reconnaissance direction. A similar approach is much cheaper and more reliable system of cosmic Marine reconnaissance and target designation made in the USSR. Knock «Hawkeye» is possible, but difficult — it covers a couple of fighters, and he sees so far, it is unrealistic to get close to him noticed — «Hawkeye» or time to retreat, or cause revenue.

Metal fist

As for the shock abilities AUG — here even easier. Imagine a small town, an area of ​​5×5, ie 25 square miles. And compare it with the destroyer, whose dimensions 150h30 meters, ie 0.0045 m. km. Yes it is almost point goal! Because deck aircraft because of their own relative small, inefficient work against ground targets, but in a naval battle their striking power for themselves has no equal.

Although we hurried, calling AUG ineffective against ground targets. What they are, even with limited use, take the 10-20% of the tasks Air Force says only the universality of this type of naval gun. What help have cruisers and submarines during «Operation Desert Storm»? Released in 1000, «» Hatchet «, which amounted to about 1% of the air operations. Vietnam acts deck aircraft were more active — they had to be on 34% of all sorties. Over the period from 1964 to 1973, the 77th Aviation task force made 500,000 sorties.


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