World Water Day to save the planet
March 22 each year around the world celebrated the International Day of the water. This is done to draw attention to the importance of fresh water and the selection of environmentally sustainable management of freshwater. First celebration of water was proposed in 1992 at the UN Conference on Environment and Development. The UN General Assembly responded to the offer, choosing 22 March 1993 the first International Day of water. In 2012, in connection with this day raised the theme of "Water and Food Security."
Food security exists when people at all times have both physical and economic access to sufficient, clean and nutritious food necessary for a healthy, active lifestyle. Those who have easy access to water, have a high level of nutrition. Accordingly, the lack of water leads to starvation and low supply, especially in those regions where the lives of people in the matter of eating and earnings depend on local agriculture. Irregular rains and seasonal changes in water availability can cause a temporary shortage of food. Floods and droughts are considered the main causes of severe food shortages.
Water scarcity occurs in all continents, affecting the lives of more than 40% of the total population. By 2025, about 1.8 billion people will live in countries or regions with acute water shortages, and about two-thirds of the world's population will live in water stress. Lack of water limits the ability of farmers to produce enough food. Water resources of the southern and eastern regions of Asia, the Middle East are at the limit, and the population continues to grow.
Graph: Estimated annual amount of water
Climate change will affect agriculture, based on both the natural and the artificial irrigation. Serious reduction of river runoff and aquifer recharge to occur in the Mediterranean and semi-arid regions of North and South America, Australia and South Africa. In regions of high latitudes will experience an increase in opportunities, while the country close to the equator, faced with frequent droughts, torrential rains and floods that can destroy crops.
Map: The main risks faced by regions
Population growth and economic development of a high demand for water for industrial purposes, and to ensure the population. In urban water consumption is much higher than in agriculture. Some regions have a struggle for the distribution of resources on the production of staple food, livestock, fishing in inland waters, aquaculture and non-food products. The struggle for resources leads to the poor and vulnerable people have no access to water, which is their main source of food and income.
International Water Day reminds all that in the world there are shortages of water, sanitation and hygiene, which require us to immediate action. Approximately one person in eight in the world has access to clean drinking water and two out of six living in the absence of sanitation.
Water is life
Our planet is home to around 7 billion, and another 2 billion should be available by 2050. According to statistics, each person drinks about 2-4 liters of water daily, although most of it comes with the meal. For example, to produce one kilogram of beef to 15,000 liters of water, and to get a kilo of wheat — 1,500 liters. If a billion people live in chronic hunger and the acute shortage of water, we can not ignore the problems. To cope with the demands of a growing population, we can:
- a healthy diet;
- absorb less products that require large amounts of water for their production;
- reduce the outrageous waste of water (30% of all food produced is thrown out, which means the water used to produce it is wasted);
- produce more quality food that requires little water to produce it.
- To make a glass of beer, 75 liters of water is necessary.
- 3.6 million people die each year from diseases associated with water. This amount is equal to the population of Los Angeles.
- 884 million people have no access to water. This amount is almost three times higher than the U.S. population.