Man since ancient times excites the idea of the opportunity to meet with representatives of other civilizations. There is an entire subculture of being concerned in search of evidence that aliens have visited our planet.
However, the representatives of this subculture, and people who simply like the idea of the existence of aliens, have to think of the obvious question — if the aliens really are regularly visited by our planet, why so far we have not managed to talk to them?
Answers to this question asked a few. The five most popular and reasonable we present in this article.
1. If they exist, they are likely others too …
Our ideas about alien life, whether we like it or not, related to our earthly experience. Virtually every major alien race in the world of fantasy and science fiction — humanoids. The Klingons from "Star Trek," in essence, evil cave savages, and Vulcan at all difficult to distinguish from the people. Luke Skywalker and Han Solo — the aliens, but they look exactly like the Europeans earthlings 70s.
Even Aliens of the same movie, despite the awesome view, close enough to us to fulfill this role could the people in the respective suits.
All of the "witnesses", talks about his contacts with aliens, describe the humanoids, which always have a head, arms, legs and eyes. In short, the reference point of our understanding of extraterrestrial intelligent life — is its indispensable "anthropoid". But who said that between us at all there must be something in common?
In fact, we have not the slightest idea of what life could have developed on a distant planet heated by an unknown star. The dominant form of extraterrestrial life could easily be a cloud of neon gas or energy clusters that communicate through a series of atonal whistles changing temperature ranges or emission of certain odors.
If the carbon on Earth — the basic element, it is absolutely not the fact that he is on another planet exists at all, and indeed the universe may not apply to many of the earthly laws. It may be that we have not met with the aliens simply because they would be able to recognize, even if they landed a meter away from us.
But it is unlikely that they are outwardly very similar to us — is small, the probability that their way of thinking somehow the same as ours, even less. We and each other that we can not always agree, but here — alien upbringing. So to decrypt a single phrase stranger, most likely, we would take days, months, or even decades.
2. They do not want to interfere
Assume that aliens exist, they are sufficiently similar to us, to our communication was theoretically possible, and that they harbor insidious plans to take possession of our mineral resources and are not going to become implanted in our bodies. Even in this case, the representatives of extraterrestrial intelligence can find plenty of reasons to refrain from communicating with us.
If you watched "Star Trek", you might remember one of the most important rules of "Enterprise", according to which every race is assumed to pass its own evolutionary path. Nobody has the right to go into other people's worlds with its advanced technology, medicine, culture and impose their moral principles. Regardless of the situation.
So: there is a similar hypothesis in all seriousness. It's called "zoo hypothesis" was proposed in 1973 by the American astronomer John Ball. According to this hypothesis, the alien mind for a long time knows about us, but prefers not to interfere with the natural process of development, and just watching us from the side, like animals in a zoo. But when we grow up to their level, then they will be, and can even share with us the secret of time travel, or even what some stunning technology.
Is it good or bad — the big question. Good intentions sometimes lead to unexpected consequences. For example, once was implemented large-scale project aimed at improving the lives of poor families in Ethiopia. In the course of this project in the Ethiopian hut had running water. Great project that really hard life much easier for many people. As a result, Ethiopia reduced the number of babies who die shortly after birth. Consequently, the family grew. And since no money, no work was no more, these surviving children were destined to rise in hunger. This, of course, does not mean that it was necessary to leave the poor Ethiopians without running water and allow their babies to die. But that's the way the world is that the solution to one problem may unexpectedly lead to another, no less acute.
Now imagine that the aliens come to Earth, say, in the Middle Ages and decided to make mankind happy by giving him an inexhaustible source of energy and advanced technology irrigation. That's it! There is no competition for resources — we are provided with them forever. And then what? The land would have been crowded quickly, and people quickly adapted to grant them energy for incineration each other to clear a space for themselves in life. A hundred years from Earth would have remained some embers, and our "benefactors" would have to justify to the intergalactic community. And why should they?
3. We are not interested
According to the so-called "law of progressive return" as soon as civilization makes a technological breakthrough, the rate of its subsequent development begins to grow exponentially. To see this, it suffices to compare the progress that mankind has made in the last century (in medicine, computer technology, aviation, aerospace), and in all of the previous millennium. And each new stage of development requires less and less time. When we build a new, very modern house, we do not have to reinvent the hammer and nails — we use the tools that are designed and refined to us.
Now let's apply the same logic to the super-advanced alien civilization.
We believe that the civilization of the "flying saucers" is far ahead of us in development, that is, they have this "law of return progressive" acts much longer ours.
Even by the most conservative estimates, we take the rate at which evolved terrestrial technology the past 50 years and multiply by, say, 300 or 400. Well, that is what they tell us?
It is possible that alien civilizations are not trying to establish contact with us for the same reason that we do not try to make contact with a fish in an aquarium — we are, in fact, have nothing to say to each other.
4. We missed each other in time
When we think about the probability of the existence of intelligent beings beyond our planet, we represent millions and billions of planets — well, there can be such that at least one of them do not live any little green men with whom one could talk. But here we tend to forget how limited not only in space but also in time.
Just think — until the first people in the world, it has existed at least four billion years. Maybe at that time somewhere in the neighborhood and some alien civilization flourished. Maybe during this time in search of fellow human beings they once visited our planet. And it may have even discovered her prehistoric lizards. To contact was possible, civilization must be met not only in the degree of "reasonableness", but also chronologically. And, apparently, the probability of this coincidence is extremely small.
Skeptics of science, which do not feed bread — let me just fuck up the cherished dream, invented the so-called "theory of the end of the world." This probabilistic reasoning — an attempt to predict how the human race can still survive on this planet, based on the number of people who until now have been born here. We will not go into details, let us just say that these calculations humanity is likely to dry up long before they learned to fly to other stars. And before the aliens are ripe for a visit to us.
To be precise — the supporters of "Theorems on the end of the world" believe that mankind with a probability of 95 percent will be able to live on Earth for about 9000 years, which is a cosmic scale is not so long.
Even if by that time we will have time to invent intergalactic ships, it must be borne in mind that the "Theorem on the end of the world" also applies to those of civilization, which we expect to establish contact. Accordingly, even assuming that the planet with intelligent life and the truth is, there is likely before reaching it, we find the only large mountain of skulls. Is it worth it for the sake of this valuable fuel transfer?
5. They are not and can not be
The so-called "unique hypothesis of the Earth" was formulated by two scientists — paleontologist Peter Ward and astronomer Donald Brownlee. They wrote a book in which he argued that the Earth has been seen quite a unique combination of such a huge amount of detail that the likelihood of recurrence elsewhere in the universe is vanishingly small.
That is, it is possible that some bacteria, algae or fungus may show space under a rock on one of the distant planets. But the chances that this form of life will develop to such an extent that it would begin to build a house and start spaceships — nothing more than to win the lottery every day for the rest of his life.
First, great importance is the location of the solar system — if it gets too close to the center of the galaxy — will come under harsh radiation exposure if it is too far away — you will not be able to support life. Now the star should not be too old, too bright or too large, otherwise life will not arise again. Next: a planet to be habitable, must turn ideally suited for this orbit. In the case of the Earth, if the orbit on which we rotate, would have decreased by five percent or increased by fifteen, we would either be immediately burned or froze to death, respectively. The size and location of our moon, too, play an important role — they keep the planet in a stable position, protecting us from the rapid changes in climate and all sorts of other horrible disasters. If the Earth did not have such a valuable companion such size and shape, we would most likely there would not be a.
The sequence of geological strata is important too — if, for example, the Mesozoic era followed kainozoyskoy, the conditions for human development would not have come, evolution would have gone the other way, as a result, may appear to some reasonable dinosaurs.
Even the location of other planets in the solar system matter. For example, Jupiter helps us to survive, protecting it from space debris and deadly asteroids.
In addition there are countless circumstances which set and allowed intelligent life to appear on the planet — a single in the galaxy. The probability that all of this is a combination of repeated elsewhere, is almost zero.
Consequently, there is hope to make contact with another intelligent civilization, such as the other does not and can not be.