New Delhi purposefully preparing to defend against missile attacks
After the nuclear tests in 1998, India sent close attention to the development of technologies in the field of missile defense. In the process of their creation and development of Indian spices relied on their own merits and used military-technical cooperation with other countries. According to estimates of the Stockholm Institute research problems of the world (SIPRI) in recent years in the global market of weapons and military equipment Indians exhibit excessive enthusiasm particularly to systems for the Air Force, Air and Missile Defense.
Lack of approved concept of Indian missile defense does not allow true construct main objectives that it aims to solve. But they can be estimated on the basis of a formal statements and expert assessments.
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What are the reasons first worked on that defense was among the values of military construction of the South Asian powers?
Need to improve the level of protection of nuclear forces and keep a reliable potential for retaliatory nuclear strike. For India, which has taken on a commitment not to use nuclear weapons first, it is of prime importance. To have the potential retaliation, she, as stated in the Indian military doctrine seeks to ensure the survivability of its nuclear arsenal, the effectiveness of combat command, control, communications, software and information security and intelligence of cosmic and terrestrial systems, missile warning (EWS).
Aware of the vulnerability of administrative centers and military facilities before the missile threat from potential enemies, aggravated by the unsatisfactory state of the air defense forces.
Willingness of the authorities to confirm their ability to protect the population from external threats affecting advocacy functions guns. It seems Indian citizens not only as a means to engage the enemy in battle, and as a kind of political character. Not the case for many weapons systems India peculiar names that refer to religious or historical images (for example, «Trishul» — the name of a loved SAM acts — is a trident, an attribute of the Hindu god Shiva). Political context allows positively address the issues of performance and price defense, even if the military, technological and economic point of view there is no concrete answer.
Zeal India take place among the leading states of the planet, explaining her willingness to significant costs in the military field. ABM technology along with the technology of nuclear missile weapons Indians perceived as one of the attributes of such countries. Showing progress in the development of these technologies, India claims to be belonging to a narrow range of global powers. For example, after the first flight tests of the missile system November 27, 2006 Raj Chengappa, a columnist for the magazine India Today, wrote: «India has become the youngest member of a select group of nations that have the potential for the development of missile defense systems, namely the U.S., Russia and Israel.» And just for testing ballistic missile «Agni-5», April 19, 2012 Indian officials stressed that their country has joined the elite club of countries possessing missiles of intercontinental range.
Intention to use the byproducts of defense technology for peaceful purposes. According Abadukatha Pillai, head of the Russian-Indian venture «BrahMos Aerospace», the Indian tradition has always focused on the fact that any scientific and technical applets have been focused on the socio-economic development of the country.
What and where is located
In India, highlighted areas and objects that require cover TMD-defense. According to Air Marshal Raghu Rajan, in 1983 such objects and districts was 101, in 1992 — 122, in 1997 — 133.
Certainly, in the number of vulnerable areas comes the capital New Delhi, where the political leadership of the country and, namely, the Prime Minister, who heads the Political Committee of the Joint Command strategic forces responsible for making the decision to use nuclear weapons. Command itself is first positioned in the capital, but later relocated, presumably blizkoraspolozhenny area.
In New Delhi or its suburbs are also located underground command post (CP) of the Unified Command. Spare gearbox is perhaps the south. If this is the reality, then it can be located in the vicinity of 333, 334 and 335th missile group in which deployed missile «Prithvi-1» and «Prithvi-2» (333rd group), «Agni-2» (334 and 335th). These groups are based near Secunderabad (Andhra Pradesh) and, of course, should also be included in the list of vulnerable targets.
According to the views of the South American professional Dean Wilkening, as survivability of nuclear weapons India defined by the absence of certain disk imaging locations of warehouses with nuclear warheads and delivery vehicles, zonal defense of object is better, because it avoids the precise localization of protected objects.
The same reasoning applies to the choice of area for missile defense of the capital and suburban areas, where the installation manual of the Joint Command. According Vijay Kumar Saraswat, Scientific Adviser of the Indian defense research and development (OOIR) for the metropolitan area need two missile batteries, capable to cover a total area of 400 square km. In addition, according to the spices, ABM is useful to protect the major cities of India (Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai) and other priority for enemy targets.
Rubezhnaya missile-defense apparently complements zonal and object, as evidenced by India’s plans to deploy by 2015 eight divisions, filled with anti-aircraft missile system of medium-range, 6 of which will be located in the north-east (towards China), and two, perhaps — in the west (Pakistan direction).
Implementation plans for the development of air defense missile-2015 to require that New Delhi investing significant resources exploration and development of new technologies (namely in the field of early warning system). The solution of tasks complicated by the fact that India’s hard to buy a number of missile defense technologies-defense in the PTS with other countries. As noted Abadukath Pillai, in order to maintain control regime very often countries that really need to be developed for self-defense or in development, are denied access to these technologies.
Examples of such limitations are inherent to all of the major partners in New Delhi MTC. For example, Victor Komardin managing Russian delegation of «Rosoboronexport» at «Defekspo India-2012», said Our motherland India offers air defense short and medium range (such as SAM «Buk-M2E» and «Tor-M2E «ZRPK» Armour-C1 «MANPADS» Igla-S «). Contrary to the assertions of some Pakistani researchers did not provide Moscow New Delhi rent antiaircraft missile system (AAMS) C-300 in an open PTS.
India’s cooperation with Israel extends to the defense, but not because of opposition to the U.S. missile defense system, which with its part also restrict access to sensitive technologies Indians that is recognized by both countries.
Given limited resources and features of MTC with other states in the field of missile defense, air defense, more easily accessible to India, views researcher Sanjay Badri-Maharaj, a missile defense system would be based on the country’s existing air defense system.
Reliability defense in question
Indian defense forces formed January 10, 1994, were originally part of the Air Force, but April 18, 2005 th reassigned to ground troops. Organizational and they are divided into the control system of air defense forces and air defenses actually. Base last up two anti-aircraft missile groups armed with SAM 2Q12 «Cube» (12 regiments), 30 regiments with antiaircraft guns Bofors L40/70, four regiments with ZSU 23-4 «Shilka», etc. These parts provide a zonal defense. Puzzles object air defense decide shelves, which are armed with such complexes as SAM 9K35 «Strela-10» and SAM 9K33 «Osa». Furthermore batteries 30-40 imparted Force (see Table)..
Self-propelled ZSU «Shilka».
Of course, the air defenses in need of modernization, which would be worth to use for the creation of missile-defense. But by itself for itself modernization of air defense troops, maybe claim very vast resources. It can not afford to provide adequate funding for the creation of missile defense and early warning system. According to the letter, General Vijay Kumar Singh, former Army Chief of Staff, almost 97 percent of India’s air defense assets has expired.
Not without failures
Middle of the 80s the government led by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, commissioned OOIR (based in 1958) implementation of research and development (R & D) on three fronts, one of which became missiles of different classes, including anti-aircraft missile air defense systems. Work in this area was carried out in the framework of pervading applets to develop guided missile weapons, which lasted from 1982 to 2008. Bankroll applets equated to 7.8 billion rupees (630 million dollars at the exchange rate in 1985).
Development of anti-aircraft missile system of medium-range «Akash» (the beginning of the project in 1983), close SAM acts «Trishul» (1984) led to limited success. These projects were implemented with the introduction of both Russian and zabugornyh technologies. The system «Akash» technology applied anti-aircraft guided missiles 3M9 Russian SAM 2Q12 «Square» in «Trishul» — SAM 9M33 complex 9K33 «Osa».
First flight tests SAM «Akash» held in 1990, then to 1997, followed by a series of tests. In 1998 he started shooting SAM air targets. In 2006 the complex was transferred to the trial operation in the Army of India, reveal severe prepyadstviya. Elimination of most bugs turned the tide in 2008, when testing of the system with the role of representatives of the Air Force were found to be successful.
In the same year, the Air Force ordered two battalions of «Akash», including 32 launchers and 250 missiles, worth 12.2 billion rupees (267.4 million dollars at the exchange rate in 2008). In late 2008 it was announced that the Air Force has ordered six battalions «Akash» by 35 billion rupees (716 million dollars).
Enthusiasm to the complex showed not only defenders of Indian sky. At a meeting of the Council for Defence Procurement June 8, 2010 was approved by the order for SAM «Akash» for the 12 divisions. In March of 2011, signed a corresponding agreement between the Army and the company «Bharat Dynamics Limited», the main developer of missile weapons in India, including «Akash». Under the agreement, the company must equip two regiments of 2000 rockets launchers, radars and other parts of the complex «Akash». Contract amount — 140 billion rupees (3.2 billion dollars). Receipt of the first batch of SAM is scheduled for 2012. This contract with the Indian manufacturer has become the most expensive in the history of the Indian armed forces.
Unlike the «Akasha» development close SAM acts «Trishul» ended in failure. C 1984 held more than 40 flight tests, but their results did not satisfy the military, who have questioned the possibility of «Trishul» change complex 9K33 «Osa».
February 27, 2007 Defense Minister A. Anthony announced the end of the project «Trishul». It cost the state 2.8 billion rupees (65.9 million dollars at the exchange rate in 2008). For comparison: for the project «Akash» spent 5.2 billion rupees (122 million dollars at the exchange rate in 2008).
Because of problems of the «Trishul» and lag on the timing of the «Akash» India has decided to turn to foreign partners, first to Israel and Russia, for the acquisition of other systems.
There is progress
Middle of the first decade of the XXI century, it became clear to develop India-based missile defense OTP «Prithvi». Expectation of the ABM began in 1999. It should consist of 2-systems: «Prithvi Air Difens» (SEM) — to intercept targets beyond the atmosphere and «Edvansed Difens Eyre» (EED) — to intercept targets after entry into the atmosphere. Unlike the SEM, which is based in missile technology «Prithvi» EED developed from scratch.
SEM is a two-stage rocket, developmental rate in the active phase line of motion to 1.7 kilometers per second. 1st stage — liquid, the second — solid fuel. This system aims to ballistic missiles with a range from 300 to 2000 km, which can be intercepted at an altitude of 50-80 km and 150-200 km range.
EED — single-stage solid-propellant missile. Her speed on the active section of the line movement — up to 1.0 kilometers per second. Interception can be carried to an altitude of 30 km and ranges up to 30 km.
First flight tests with the defeat of the SEM target at an altitude of 48 km was successfully held on 27 November 2006, after Vijay Kumar Saraswat said: «We have successfully mastered the technology for a missile defense system … When will it be necessary for the country, we get it, but at least three — five years. «
With still developing missile defense technologies is a priority, which is confirmed by the words of APJ Abdul Kalam, President of India in 2002-2007: «In the next two decades the missile defense system will play a major role in protection against nuclear attacks, then come time of cosmic systems and strategic military satellites. «
During the second successful test March 6, 2009, modifications to the SEM-2 more massive engines, improved guidance and control systems and a 30-pound warhead directed acts. The system was operated in the automatic mode. The target was destroyed at an altitude of 75 km. Unlike previous testing, during which Israel used radar «Elta Green Pine» tests were conducted in 2009 with the introduction of the experimental radar distant Indian act «Sordfish.» As highlighted by Vijay Kumar Saraswat, potential SES-2 was increased by 30 percent compared with the SEM.
December 6, 2007 India conducted the first successful test of EED, which intercepted the target at an altitude of 15 km. On the original plot line of motion produced inertial guidance interceptor on the destination — active radar homing. Then Vijay Kumar Saraswat said that one missile battery can protect an area of 200 square km. Of course, this battery should include both SEM and EED, which is confirmed intentions Indian developers to test multiple simultaneous interception targets outside the atmosphere, and after entering it.
Brand new series of tests missile passed March 15, 2010 (ended in failure because of the differences of the target from the line of motion and the associated interceptor system failure), July 26, 2010 and March 6, 2011 the first (successful). According to sources in OOIR successful tests of 2011 allow you to plan the deployment of missile defense in India in 2015. By this time the expected commissioning of eight battalions, filled SAM «Akash».
Component of cosmic
By 2015, New Delhi expects to receive not only reliable interceptors, and early warning system, including radars and satellites. The pace of development of these systems are forced to be treated with caution to those plans. For example, in 2009, was the first time tested the distant radar detection «Sordfish,» but in the same year decided to engage in the development of non-state stations in order to improve its effectiveness, namely acts radius increment from 600 to 1500 km . As expected, these developments have been completed by 2011, but this is not officially reported.
Development of satellite systems of India does not allow read about its readiness for deployment of cosmic EWS in the coming term. Only 32 percent of the 65 units, derived by Indians in orbit 1975-2011 years, able to do tasks related to Earth observation (imaging, mapping, Surveying and meteorological services). Perhaps only in one case the operator is Air India — RISAT-2 satellite sent into near-Earth space 20 April 2009. This is the first Indian of cosmic machine on which the synthetic aperture radar, which allows to obtain images in all weather criteria.
Earlier reconnaissance tasks done only experimental technology satellite, filled chamber, which makes the one-resolution panchromatic images, radar and X-diapason phased array (placed in orbit 22 October 2001). Period appeal both satellites is more than 90 minutes, the highest review the Earth’s surface does not exceed 4 percent. Moving on the sun-synchronous orbit, these devices are constantly on the illuminated side of our planet. Of course, installed on their equipment allows you to record the movement of armed groups and its possible opponent of military equipment, including mobile launchers, but not to warn of missile attack.
So Makar, New Delhi develop missile defense technology based on the need to increase the survivability of their nuclear forces, protection of sensitive areas and facilities of the Indian country, and zeal to use it as a factor in the internal and external policies. ABM is designed to show strength, sophistication and ambition of the South Asian giant. In addition, the creation, development and improvement of means of defense will help India reach a new technological level, which will benefit both the military and civilian sectors for industry.
Obstacle to the Indians to their defense — such factors as limited internal resources and capabilities to acquire the technologies within the MTC with other countries. Defense forces, based on which could be built missile defense, are languid state out of it reclaims significant costs and time.
The principal feature of public debate in India is the presence of a political consensus on the need for further developments in the field of missile defense in the absence of agreement in the expert community on the need for significant spending on missile defense, which not only can not guarantee the protection of the country from missile and nuclear threats, and creates new ones.
The combination of positive and negative reasons forces with great caution on plans to deploy missile defense and modernization by 2015. Considering the whole these projects in India, we can distinguish four levels of promising anti-air missile attack. First two levels — SEM and EED should be inserted parts ABM second — air defense short and medium range, possibly independent system.