Military aircraft missile system «Buk» (9K37) is designed for the destruction of the criteria jamming aerodynamic purposes, soaring at speeds up to 830 meters per second., At low and medium altitudes, at ranges of up to 30,000 m, maneuvering with overloads of up to 12 units., And in the future — ballistic missiles » Lance «. Development started in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers on 01.13.1972. she divined introduction cooperation of manufacturers and developers in the main made accordingly previously involved in the development of anti-aircraft missile system «Cube». Immediately this led to the development of anti-aircraft missile system M-22 («Hurricane») for the Navy with the introduction of anti-aircraft guided missiles, one with SAM «Buk».
The developer of the complex «Beech» generally caused NIIP (Scientific Research Institute of Instrument) NGO (scientific and Design Association) «Fazotron» (CEO VK Grishin) MCI (formerly OKB-15 GKAT). Chief designer of complex 9K37 — Rastov AA, CP (Command Fri) 9S470 — GN shaft (Then — Sokiran VI), SDA (self-propelled fire installations) 9A38 — Matyashev VV, semiactive Doppler GOS 9E50 for anti-aircraft missiles — IG Hakobyan
ROM (puskozaryazhayuschaya setting) 9A39 created in ICD (Engineering Design Bureau) «Start» MAP (formerly SKB-203 GKAT), Managing Yaskin AI
Unified crawlers been developing complex machines for OKB-40 MSW (Mytischinskiy Machine Works) of the Ministry of Transport Engineering running NA Astrov
Development of missiles 9M38 was entrusted MCBN (Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Design Bureau) «Innovator» MAP (formerly OKB-8) headed Lyulevym LV, abandoning verbovaniya design bureau of the plant number 134, which was previously developed for guided missile complex «Cube».
SOC 9S18 (station detection and targeting) («Dome») was developed in NIIIP (Research Institute of measuring devices) of the Ministry of Radio running Vetoshko AP (Later — Schekotova YP).
Also for the complex was designed as a set of tools. maintenance and service on auto chassis.
Closing develop means of antiaircraft missile complex was planned for the II quarter of 1975.
But for a quick gain defense main strike force NE — armored divisions — with increased combat capabilities of air defense missile regiments «Cube», included in the data division by growth Channel Targets twice (and, if possible, a complete self-channels during operation from target detection to its destruction), Decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR from 22.05.1974 instructed to perform an anti-aircraft missile system «Buk» 2 steps. First proposed an accelerated pace to create an anti-aircraft guided missile firing and self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system «Buk» capable of launching rockets and missiles 9M38 3M9M3 complex «Kub-M3». On this basis, using other means complex «Kub-M3» should have made air defense missile system «Buk-1» (9K37-1), and to ensure in September 1974 on his way out joint tests. With all this saved previously prescribed timing and amount of work on SAM «Buk» This full-up.
For complex «Buk-1» provided for each of the anti-aircraft missile batteries (5 pcs.) Regiment «Kub-M3», in addition to one Surnov and 4 self-propelled launchers to introduce a self-propelled launcher mounts 9A38, from the missile system «Buk». So Makar, through the use of self-propelled fire installation, the cost of which was about 30% of the costs for other means of batteries in the regiment «Kub-M3» The number of combat-ready anti-aircraft guided missiles increased from 60 to 75, and motivated channels — from 5 to 10.
Self-propelled fire setting 9A38 mounted on the chassis of the GM-569, seems to be connected the voedinyzhdy Surnov function and self-propelled PU used in the complex «Cube-M3.» Self-propelled fire installation 9A38 provides search in the established sector performs discovery and acquisition of targets for automatic tracking, solved puzzles-launch, launch and homing missiles 3 (3M9M3 or 9M38) disposed thereon, and 3 missiles 3M9M3 located on a self-propelled PU 2P25M3 conjugate with her. Fire fighting installation work carried out both independently and in the management and targeting of sunray.
9A38-propelled fire installation consisted of:
— digital computing system;
— 9S35 radar;
— starting device Curb power servo drives;
— television-optical sight;
— ground radar interrogator working in the system identification «Password»;
— Repair telecode connection with sunray;
— wired communication with SPU;
— Autonomous power supply system (gas turbine generator);
— equipment navigation, topographic binding and orientation;
— life support systems.
Weight-propelled fire installations, including mass combat crew consisting of 4 people, equated 34 thousand pounds.
Progress, which have gained in terms of the creation of microwave devices, electro-mechanical and quartz filters, digital computers, has permitted to connect to radar detection stations 9S35 functions, illumination and target tracking. Station operated in the centimeter wave spectrum, it used a single antenna and two transmitters — continuous and pulsed radiation. First transmitter was used for the detection and tracking of targets in quasi-cw mode radiation or, in case of problems with a specific definition of the range, in a pulsed mode with pulse compression (used linear frequency modulation). Continuous wave transmitter was used for target illumination and anti-aircraft missiles. Antenna system producing sector search electromechanically, target tracking in range and angular coordinates satisfy monopulse method and signal processing produced CVM. Beamwidth channel target tracking azimuth of 1.3 degrees and elevation — 2.5 degrees, channel illumination — Azimuth — 1.4 degrees and elevation — 2.65 degrees. Time search sector angle (elevation — 6.7 degrees in azimuth — 120 degrees) in the standalone mode — 4 seconds in mode MC (elevation — 7 degrees in azimuth — 10 degrees) — 2 seconds. The average power of the transmitter channel detection and tracking of targets equal to: in the case of quasi-continuous signals — at least 1 kW in the case of signals with linear frequency modulation — at least 0.5 kW. Average transmitter power illumination purposes — at least 2 kW. Noise factor and the direction-finding survey receivers station — less than 10 dB. The transition time between the radar and combat duty regimes was less than 20 seconds. Station to exactly determine the speed goals with accuracy from -20 to 10 m / s; ensure the selection of moving targets. The largest error in distance — 175 meters, the standard error of measurement of angular coordinates — 0.5 PDE Radar has been protected from passive, active and combined interference. Fire equipment self-propelled installation provides start inhibit anti-aircraft guided missiles accompanying own helicopter or airplane.
Self-propelled fire setting 9A38 equipped with triggering device with replaceable guides created for 3 guided missiles 3M9M3 or 3 missiles 9M38.
In antiaircraft missile 9M38 was used dual-mode solid engine (total run time was about 15 sec.). The use of continuous-flow motor refused not only due to the huge resistance to passive movement and sections of the line of instability in bolshennom angle of attack, and because of the difficulty of working out that to a large extent caused disruption of the schedule creation SAM «Cube». Power motor chamber design was made of metal.
The general scheme of anti-aircraft missiles — X-shaped, plain, low aspect ratio wing. Appearance resembled a rocket ship’s anti-aircraft missiles families «Etalon» and «Tartarus» South American production. This corresponded to severe restrictions on the overall dimensions of the application of anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M38 in the complex M-22, which was developed for the Soviet Navy.
Rocket made in the usual way and had a wing of small aspect ratio. In the front of the alternately arranged Semiactive GMN, autopilot equipment, food and warhead. To reduce the spread of alignment time flight solid propellant combustion chamber positioned closer to the middle, and the nozzle unit equipped with an extended flue, which are located around the control elements of the drive. There are no missiles in flight separating parts. The diameter of the rocket was 400 mm, length — 5.5 m, wingspan rudders — 860 mm.
The diameter of the front cover (330 mm) rockets were lower relative to the tail section and the engine, which is determined by the continuity of certain parts with the family 3M9. The missile was equipped with the latest homing having a combined control system. The complex implemented homing anti-aircraft guided missiles with the introduction of proportional navigation method.
Anti-aircraft guided missile 9M38 provided hitting targets at altitudes from 25 to 20 sq m at a range — from 3.5 to 32 km. Flight speed was 1000 m / s and maneuvered with overloads up to 19 unit loads.
Weight of the rocket — 685 kg, including 70 kg warhead.
Rocket design to ensure its delivery to the troops in a completely equipped with a shipping container 9YA266 also operate without routine maintenance and inspection for 10 years.
From August 1975 to October 1976 anti-aircraft missile system «Buk-1» consisting of Surnov 1S91M3, self-propelled fire installation 9A38, PU 2P25M3 propelled, anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M38 and 3M9M3 also MTO (car maintenance) 9V881 held state. tests Emba landfill (landfill manager Vashenko BI) under commission headed Bimbashem PS
As a result, the detection range of the test received radar aircraft propelled fire installation work offline at altitudes of more than 3 thousand meters — from 65 to 77 km, at low altitudes (30 to 100 meters) detection range was reduced to 32-41 km. Detection of helicopters at low altitudes occurred at a distance of 21-35 km. When working in a centralized mode due to the limited abilities of outstanding targeting Surnov 1S91M2 detection range aircraft at altitudes of 3-7 km was reduced to 44 km and objectives at low altitudes — up to 21-28 km. In standalone mode, the self-propelled fire dead time setting (since the discovery of the target before the start of a guided missile) was 24-27 sec. Time charging / discharging with 3 anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M38 or 3M9M3 was 9 minutes.
When firing anti-aircraft guided missile 9M38 defeat aircraft hovering at altitudes of more than 3 million meters, ensured by 3,4-20,5 km range, at an altitude of 30 meters — 5-15,4 km. The affected area height — from 30 meters to 14 km, for course setting — 18 km. Opportunity to defeat one aircraft guided missile 9M38 — 0,70-0,93.
Adopt complex took in 1978. Since the installation of fire-propelled anti-aircraft gun 9A38 and 9M38 were guided missile facilities, complementary means of antiaircraft missile complex «Kub-M3» complex given the title «Kub-M4» (2K12M4).
Self-propelled launcher mounts 9A38 performed Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MRP and anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M38 — Dolgoprudnenskoye engineering plant MAP previously rocketing 3M9.
Complexes «Kub-M4», shown in the defense forces of the Land Forces have allowed significantly improve the efficiency of air defense armored divisions NE CA.
Joint tests SAM «Buk» the full amounts due this occurred in the period from November 1977 to March 1979, on the Emba range (Head Zubarev VV) under commission headed Pervova YN
ORDNANCE air defense missile system «Buk» had the following properties.
9S470 command post on the chassis of the GM-579 allows you to receive, display and processing of data about order coming from the station 9S18 (station detection and targeting) and 6 self-propelled fire installations 9A310, also from higher command Fri; choice of targets and their unsafe rassredotachivanie between self-propelled launcher settings in automatic and manual modes, the job sectors of their responsibility, the mapping of a disk imaging anti-aircraft guided missiles firing and pre-charging facilities, the transmitters Liter firing illumination units, work on goals, mode work station detection and targeting; company of the complex interference with anti-radar missiles and application; documentation of training and work manual calculation. Fri processed command messages to 46 are at an altitude of 20 thousand square meters in an area of 100 sq m per cycle review station and gave up six target indications for self-propelled launcher unit (accuracy in elevation and azimuth — 1 degree in range — 400-700 meters). Weight team Fri, including a crew of 6, less than 28 tons.
Coherent Pulse three-coordinate station detection and targeting «Dome» (9S18) centimeter spectrum having electrical beam scanning in elevation sector (set of 30 or 40 degrees) with a mechanical (in the sector or radial) antenna rotation in azimuth (using electric or hydraulic drive). 9S18 station intended for the detection and identification of air targets at ranges of up to 110-120 km (at a height of 30 meters — 45 km) and transfer to the command post 9S470 disk imaging on the air situation.
Regardless of the presence of interference and established sector in elevation angle velocity space at a radial survey was equal 4.5 — 18 seconds, and the review in the sector 30 ° 2.5 — 4.5 seconds. Radar information was passed to the command post at 9S470 telecode strip of 75 marks in the review period (was 4.5 seconds). Standard errors of measurement targets coordinates: elevation and azimuth — less than 20 ‘in range — less than 130 meters, the resolution of elevation and azimuth — 4 degrees in range — less than 300 meters.
To ensure protection against interference sighting used restructuring carrier frequency between pulses from retaliatory interference — the same plus blanking intervals range via automatic removal from nonsynchronous impulse noise — blanking areas range and tilt shift linearly frequency modulation. Station detection and targeting with interference noise barrage samoprikrytiya and outer cover layer provides data on fighter detection ranges of over 50 thousand sq. station provides wiring purposes with a probability greater than 0.5 on the background clutter and local objects using selection scheme moving targets with autocompensation wind speeds. Station detection and targeting has been protected from protovoradiolokatsionnyh missile program restructuring of the carrier frequency for 1.3 seconds, the transition to radial polarization of the probe signal or flashing mode (intermittent radiation).
9S18 station consisted of antenna station, consisting of a truncated parabolic profile reflector and having a view of the irradiator waveguide line (provided in the elevation plane electrical beam scanning), rotary devices, the addition of the antenna; a transmitting device (average 3.5 kW); the receiving device (8 to noise ratio) and other systems.
All equipment station located on the modified self-propelled chassis «on. 124 » Su-100P. Tracked base station detection and targeting different from other means of chassis air defense missile system «Buk» differed because radar «Dome» initially wondered in development is the zenith of the complex — as a means of detecting division level Army Air Defense.
Time of transfer station between marching and fighting provisions amounted to 5 minutes, and the duty of the operating mode — about 20 seconds. Plant weight (including payment of 3 people) — up to 28.5 tons.
According to his own purpose and self-propelled device installation 9A310 fire from self-propelled fire installation 9A38 air defense missile system «Kub-M4» («Book 1») differed in that band using telecode not contacted with Surnov 1S91M3 and propelled PU 2P25M3, and with a commanding Fri 9S470 and ROM 9A39. Also, the trigger setup 9A310 housed three to four anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M38. Time to transfer the settings from marching into the firing position was the least 5 minutes. Time of transfer of duty in the operating mode, namely, after the change of position in the apparatus was switched to 20 seconds. Recharging fire installation 9A310 4-guided antiaircraft missiles from pre-installation of the charging was performed for 12 minutes, and to transport the machine — 16 minutes. Weight-propelled fire installation, including a crew of 4, equal to 32.4 tons.
Length of self-propelled fire installation — 9.3 meters, width — 3.25 meters (in working position — 9.03 meters), height — 3.8 meters (7.72 meters).
Start-Reloader 9A39 mounted on the chassis of the GM-577 was designed to transport and store the eight anti-aircraft guided missiles (the trigger — 4, motionless on lodgment — 4), 4 launch guided missiles, bootstrap own PU with 4 missiles lodgements, samozaryazhaniya 8th-Zour with transport vehicles (charging time 26 minutes), with groundwater lodgements and transport containers, vacuum and starting device self-propelled anti-aircraft fire Position 4 guided missiles. So Makar, pre-loading installing air defense missile system «Buk» TRV has joined voedinyzhdy function and self-propelled PU complex «Cube». Pre-loading apparatus consisted of a starting device with the tracking actuator, tap, lodgements, digital computer, hardware topographic binding navigation telecode communication, orientation, and power supply units. Mass units, including a crew of 3 persons — 35.5 tons.
Dimensions and loading balancing Position: Length — 9.96 meters, width — 3,316 m, height — 3.8 meters.
KP complex with perceived team Fri antiaircraft missile brigade «Beech» (Automatic control system «Polyana-D4») and from the station detection and targeting data on the traffic situation, processed them and gave instructions on self-propelled launcher mounts, search and seizure on the automatic tracking. Upon entering the goal into the affected area of launching anti-aircraft guided missiles. For missile guidance was used proportional navigation method, which ensures the highest accuracy of guidance. When approaching the target seeker issue commands to the radio controlled fuses near arming. When approaching a distance of 17 meters on the team carried undermining warhead. When a failure of radio controlled fuses anti-aircraft guided missile self-destructed. If not defeat the purpose of it was carried out by the launch of the second rocket.
Compared with anti-aircraft missile systems «Cube M3» and «Kub-M4» SAM «Buk» had the highest performance and more fighting properties and provides:
— simultaneous firing of up to 6 targets division, and as needed — perform up to 6 independent combat problems in the case of self-propelled autonomous use of fire equipment;
— great reliability detection by organizing joint review seats 6 self-propelled launcher mounts and station detection and targeting;
— overcharge immunity through the use of a special form and side illumination signal calculator homing;
— huge destruction efficiency goals through oversized warhead anti-aircraft guided missiles.
According to test results and simulation resulted that antiaircraft missile system «Buk» provided nemanevriruyuschih shelling targets that fly at altitudes from 25 meters to 18 km at a speed of 800 m / s, at a range of 3-25 km (at speeds up to 300 m / s — 30 km) at course option with up to 18 km likely to defeat a guided missile — 0.7-0.8. When firing maneuvering targets (overload up to 8 units) the possibility of defeat was 0.6.
Organizational antiaircraft missile systems «Buk» were reduced in the missile brigade, consisting of: Fri command (command and control point from the automatic control system «Polyana-D4»), 4 air defense missile battalions with their team Fri 9S470 stations 9S18 detection and targeting, communications platoon and 3 anti-aircraft missile batteries (each with two self-propelled launcher 9A310 installation and commissioning one-Reloader 9A39), a division of maintenance and support.
Manage antiaircraft missile brigade «Beech» was made with the command Fri defense army.
Complex «Beech» adopt-Defense Forces ground troops took in 1980 mass production of combat weapons complex «Beech» mastered in cooperation involved for SAM «Kub-M4.» New tools — 9S470 gearbox, self-propelled launcher and install 9A310 station detection and targeting 9S18 — produced by Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MRP, pre-Reloader 9A39 — at Sverdlovsk Machine-Building Plant. Kalinina MAP.
In accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR from 30.11.1979 has upgraded air defense missile system «Buk» to increase its combat capabilities in security complex radio-electronic means of anti-radar missiles and interference.
As a result, the tests that were conducted in February and December 1982 at the Emba range (Head — Zubarev VV) under the control of the commission headed by Gusev BM, it was found that the upgraded «Buk-M1» compared with anti-aircraft missile system «Buk», provides a huge zone of destruction of aircraft, can shoot down cruise missile ALCM with probability one defeat guided missile over 0.4, helicopters «Hugh Cobra» — 0.6-0.7, hovering helicopters — 0.3-0.4 at distances from 3.5 to 10 km.
In a self-propelled launcher mounts used instead of 36 72 lettered frequency illumination that promotes protection against intentional and mutual interference. Provide certain classes 3 goals — ballistic missiles, planes, helicopters.
Compared with the command Fri 9S470 gearbox 9S470M1 provides simultaneous data reception from its station detection and targeting and Fri from 6 to control defense tank (mechanized infantry) division or from the command Fri defense army, also all-embracing means of combat training calculations antiaircraft missile complex.
Compared to the self-propelled launcher mounts 9A310 installation 9A310M1 discovery and locked on to support the vast distances (about 25-30 percent), also the definition of ballistic missiles, helicopters and planes with a probability greater than 0.6.
The complex used more sophisticated station detection and targeting «Dome-M1» (9S18M1) having a planar phased array antenna elevation and self-propelled tracked chassis GM-567M. The same type used on the tracked chassis team Fri, propelled fire installation and commissioning of the charging unit.
Station detection and targeting has the following dimensions: length — 9,59 m, width — 3,25 m, height — 3.25 meters (in working position — 8.02 meters), weight — 35 tons.
The complex «Buk-M1» provides effective technical and organizational measures to protect against anti-radar missiles.
ORDNANCE SAM «Buk-M1» interchangeable with the same type of complex means «Beech» without modification. Native organization of technical units and combat formations similar to anti-aircraft missiles «Beech».
Complex technological equipment consists of:
— 9V95M1E — automatic machine control and test mobile station based on the ZIL-131 and trailer;
— 9V883, 9V884, 9V894 — machine system maintenance based on Ural-43203-1012;
— 9V881E — car maintenance based on Ural-43203-1012;
— 9T229 — transport car for eight anti-aircraft missiles (or 6 containers with guided missiles) based on KrAZ-255B;
— 9T31M — mobile crane;
— MTO-ATG-M1 — workshop maintenance based on ZIL-131.
Complex «Buk-M1» adopted the Defense Forces Land Forces in 1983 and mass production in cooperation established companies in the industry, ejection means air defense missile system «Buk».
In the same year he entered into service and anti-aircraft missile system the Navy M-22 «Hurricane», a unified set of «Buk» by guided missiles 9M38.
Complexes family «Beech» entitled «Ganges» offered for supply limit.
During the exercises, «Defence 92» SAMs family «Beech» carried out successful target shooting based on ballistic missile R-17, «Star» MLRS rockets and «Twister.»
In December 1992, the president of Russian Federation signed a decree on holding the forthcoming modernization SAM «Buk» — The development of an anti-aircraft missile system, not once presented at various international exhibitions entitled «Ural».
Cooperation of companies headed by «NIIP Tikhonravova» in 1994-1997 has been working on anti-aircraft missile system «Buk-M1-2.» By using the latest 9M317 missiles and other means of modernization SAM for the first time given the opportunity to liquidation tactical ballistic missiles «Lance» and air-launched missiles at ranges of up to 20 sq m, high-precision parts guns and ships at a range of up to 25 sq m and ground targets (large team Fri, launchers, aircraft on the ground) at a range of up to 15 thousand sq. The effectiveness of defeat cruise missiles, helicopters and airplanes. Affected areas on the border increased range up to 45 km and height — up to 25 km. In recent rocket foreseen introduction of inertial-corrected control system with semi-active radar homing head with guidance on the method of proportional navigation. The missile had a launch weight of 710-720 pounds in weight 50-70 kilogram warhead.
Outside newcomer 9M317 missile differed from 9M38 least length of the wing chord.
Apart from using the improved missile envisaged the introduction of the new SAM tools — radar illumination purposes and missile guidance with the installation of the antenna at a height of up to 22 meters in working position (used telescopic handlers). With the introduction of this radar is significantly expanded combat abilities to destroy the SAM low-flying targets, such as modern cruise missiles.
— 4 sections, including one self-propelled fire upgraded installation, carrying four missiles and capable of providing fire four targets at once, and start-up of the charging apparatus with 8 guided missiles;
— 2-sections, including one on the radar illumination and guidance that can provide simultaneous firing four goals and two start-up and the charging unit (each eight guided missiles).
Developed two versions of the complex — the mobile tracked machines GM-569 (used in previous versions of SAM «Beech»), also transported KrAZ trucks and trucks with trailers. In the latter case the price went down, but worse patency and the deployment of anti-aircraft missile system to march increases from 5 minutes to 10-15.
Namely, IBC «Start» during work on the modernization of SAM «Buk-M» (Complexes «Buk-M1-2», «Buk-M2») have been developed pre-loader installation 9A316 and 9P619 launcher crawler also 9A318 PU wheeled chassis.
Development process families antiaircraft rocket complexes «Cube» and «Buk» in general is a good example of the evolutionary development of military equipment and weapons to ensure the continued increase in defense capabilities NE at relatively small cost. This path of development, unfortunately, makes a gradual those prerequisites. lag. For example, even in challenging versions SAM «Buk» not found the introduction of more reliable and harmless scheme continuous operation Zour in transport-launch container vserakursny vertical launch guided missiles, antiaircraft missile other embedded SW complexes of the second generation. But, despite this, in complex socio-economic criteria evolutionary path of development has to consider only probable, and the choice made by developers complexes families ‘Beech’ and «Cube» — How true.
For the creation of air defense missile system «Buk» Rastov AA, VK Grishin, Hakobyan IG Zlatomrezhev II, Vetoshko AP Chukalovsky NV and others were awarded the USSR State Prize. Development of air defense missile system «Buk-M1» State Prize of the Russian Federation noted. Winners of the awards were given Kozlov YI, Ektov VP Shchekotov YP, Chernov VD Solntcev SV, VR Unuchko etc.
The main tactical and technical properties of anti-aircraft missile complexes of the «Buk»:
Name — «Book» / «Buk-M1»;
The affected area in range — from 3.5 to 25-30 km / 3 to 32-35 km;
The affected area height — from 0,025 up to 18-20 km / 0.015 to 20-22 km;
The affected area in the parameter — to 18/do 22;
Ability to defeat a guided missile destroyer — 0.8 .. 0.9 / 0.8 .. 0.95;
Ability to defeat a helicopter guided missile — 0.3 .. 0.6 / 0.3 .. 0.6;
The possibility of defeat cruise missile — 0.25 .. 0.5 / 0.4 .. 0.6;
Most Target speed — 800 m / s;
Response time — 22 sec.;
Airspeed anti-aircraft guided missiles — 850 m / s;
Missile weight — 685 kg;
Warhead weight — 70 kg;
Channel on the target — 2;
Ducted by SAM (on purpose) — 3;
Time expand / collapse — 5 min.;
The number of anti-aircraft missiles on combat vehicle — 4;
Year of adopting — 1980/1983.