Defense for a ruler

Not many people know that the troops of the Air Defense (NORAD) in Russia appeared during the reign of Nicholas II (1894-1917). "The Shield" — a weapon of defense, always comes up with the "sword" — an instrument of attack. With the advent of airplanes and the beginning of their use in warfare emerged and the question of their forced grounding.

First experienced fire at air targets (tied groping and air balloons) were held at the end of XIX century — in 1890 at the Ust-Izhora landfill, and in 1891 in the village of Reddish. 1908 was produced in Sestrorezk experience shooting moves the target (air moved the ball tied to his horse), in 1909, the experience is repeated near Luga. Field shot 3-inch guns, tests have shown that airborne targets can be destroyed, but there was a need for the creation of a special anti-aircraft guns.

Russian Military idea ahead of bone bureaucracy, Yeshe in 1901, a military engineer, MF Rosenberg made the design of the 1st anti-aircraft gun (57 mm), but the idea was considered not worthy of attention and rejected. In 1908, the need for the creation of the anti-aircraft guns raised spetsy Officer Artillery School and St. Michael's Artillery Academy. Officers M. Dobrowolski, EK Smyslovskiy, P. Nikitin prepared tactical and technical characteristics, VV Tarnowski made a proposal to establish a gun on a car for the increased mobility of anti-aircraft batteries. In 1913, the project was approved by the main artillery control.

In fact, the development of tools led technical manager technical office Petersburg Artillery Putilov FF Lender. He was helped by an artillery officer V. Tarnowski, PA Glazkov, workers FM Garkovsky, AY Navyadovsky, V. Biryukov. In 1914, the tool was created, the first 4-D standard set by 5-ton cars Russian-Baltic Shipyard (they were sent to protect the Tsarskoye Selo), first in 1915 were successful tests and tools to arsenal. As a weapon was used shrapnel shell explosion he gave fragment distribution to 500 meters. Total to 1918 was 148, "autocannon." The guns were mounted on cars, wagons, railway platform and the ability to protect troops on the march.

The performance properties of the gun Lender:

Diameter — 76 mm 2;
Weight in firing position — 1300 kg;
Barrel Length — 30.5 calibers;
The initial velocity of the projectile — 588 meters per second;
Rate — 15-20 shots per minute;
The largest range of shooting vertically — 6900 meters;
Most firing range across — 8500 meters.

1st Global War

By the beginning of the First World War, Our homeland (and allies in the Entente) had no means of combating the aeronautic devices of the enemy. In autumn 1914, begins the formation of anti-aircraft artpodrazdeleny orientation for their naval weapons used a 75-mm gun and 76-mm field guns. Hastily developed "yamnye" and tumbovye fit for the growth of the angle of elevation and the ability of the radial firing. The creators of these devices have become VK Matveev, VS Magi, V. And Rekalov, PM Radzivilovich, BN Ivanov. Were made by first determining the angle of pre-emption devices for firing at air targets — their creators YN Perepelkin, A. Ignatiev, IA Launitz.

November 30, 1914 was created air defense of the capital of the empire, it was headed by Major General GV Burman. First, in 1915 at the Royal Village was created 1st special anti-aircraft battery, its commander was Captain VV Tarnowski, in March, she was directed to the existing forces. June 17, during an air raid enemy battery Tarnovskii hit 2 Islands of 9 enemy aircraft, it was an account of the Russian anti-aircraft artillery. December 13, 1915 was ordered to develop a 4-light batteries to fire at air targets, is still considered the days of the creation of the army air defense troops. During the war, were put into 251 anti-aircraft batteries.

Errors resulted in a military command that was not resolved the question of training the personnel of the defense. Only at the end of 1917 in Yalta, was created by anti-aircraft officer school, the 1st of its chief deservedly became a captain V. Tarnowski, at which time a similar school was created on the northern front in the town of Dvinsk.

Anti-aircraft artillery (WA) was still far from perfect condition, so, according to various estimates, the average expenditure of ammunition in 1914-1917. One plane was shot down by 8,000 to 11,000 shells. In 1918, for 3000 rounds. All the years of the won hit FOR 1-n of the 5 enemy aircraft destroyed.

The origin of Air Defense

In January 1915, Russian-Baltic plant was built by the 1st Fighter RBVZ-C-16. His speed was 150 km. per hour, armed with a machine gun firing through the propeller plane. June 4, created a special fighter squadron for the protection of the imperial residence of the Royal Selo. July 20, 1916 is the birthday of istrebitelnoy aviation.

In World War I produced two major kinds of air defense forces: 1) anti-aircraft artillery (WA), which have been in service with special anti-aircraft guns, anti-aircraft guns or adapted for field artillery cannons, and 2) fighter aircraft. Ensuring their action has been assigned to the Discovery Service enemy aircraft (later VNOS — service of aerial surveillance, warning and communications) and spotlights. Since 1916, the defense began to use balloons and air barrier to protect large cities. Once in the Russian Empire was created and local air defense, the task of which were: alert the public about the danger of air attack, masking events stroitelsvo shelters, mitigation of air raids.

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