Work on the creation of anti-aircraft missile complex «Thor» (9K330) were initiated in accordance with the Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR from 04.02.1975 in cooperation that has developed in the development of air defense missile system «Osa». The works were completed in 1983. As with the development of complex «Wasp» and «Osa-M», along with the development of the complex for the Army launched work on shipboard system «Dagger» partly unified with it.
In fifteen years that have passed from the beginning of the development of SAM «Wasp», changed not only the tasks faced by army anti-aircraft missile systems, and the ability to solve them.
Not counting the solutions of classical puzzles to combat manned aircraft, army air defense systems had to provide settlement aircraft weapons — planning bombs like «Walleye» missiles «air-land» cruise missiles and ALCM ASALM, RPV (remotely piloted aircraft) type BGM-34. To effectively address these problems required the automation of the whole process of combat, the use of improved radar.
Changing views on the possible nature of hostilities that began prerequisite requirements for the ability to overcome the troop SAM aqua swimming bottlenecking were removed, but the need was identified to provide data for all components of air defense missile systems similar rate and extent of terrain with tanks and BMP covers parts. Given these requirements and the need for growth ammunition anti-aircraft guided missiles, advancing divisional complex with a wheeled undercarriage for heavier tracked.
Scheme of the vertical launch missiles to work at developing the S-300 has allowed to realize those similar. decision in an antiaircraft missile complex «Thor», vertically placed 8 guided missiles axis BM Tower, protecting them from splinter bombs and shells, as adverse weather effects.
The head developer of anti-aircraft missile complex «Thor» NIEMI led MCI (formerly NII-20 SERC). Efremov VP was appointed as the main designer of the complex as a whole and Drize IM — 9A330 combat vehicle of the complex. Development of anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 for «Thor» ICD engaged «Torch» MAP (formerly OKB-2 GKAT). Ran this work PD Grushin By developing Zour and combat vehicles, those funds. software and services, and other organizations involved industry.
The composition of the combat vehicle 9A330 included:
— target detection station (SOC) systems stabilize the antenna base and identification of state property;
— guidance station (CH), with the channel coordinator capture anti-aircraft guided missiles, 2 rocket channels and one channel motivated;
— special computer;
— trigger, which provides a consistent vertical launch 8 missiles stationed on military machine and equipment of different systems (starting automation, survey and navigation, documenting the process of combat performance, multipurpose combat vehicle control, life support, autonomous power in what used gas turbine generator).
All those indicated. facilities located on the self-crawler having a higher permeability. The chassis has been created by the Minsk Tractor Plant GM-355, and was unified with the chassis antiaircraft gun-missile complex «Tunguska». Weight combat vehicles, including eight guided missiles and a crew of 4, was 32 tons.
Target detection station (SOC) — coherent pulse radar radial angle centimeter spectrum having elevation frequency beam steering. Partsial (beam) with a width of 1.5 degrees in azimuth and 4 degrees in elevation could occupy in the elevation plane eight provisions, covering such makarom sector 32 degrees. Elevation could be performed simultaneously review a 3-partial. The priority for review of the partial served as special computer programm. The main operating mode allows the detection zone tempo review for 3 seconds, the lower part of the zone searched twice. As appropriate charts could be ensured in place of 3 partial rate 1 second. Mark coordinates 24 goals were tied found in runs (up to 10 tracks at once.) Commander of the indicator displayed goals in the form of points with vectors characterizing the direction and magnitude of its velocity. Appeared about their forms, which contained trace number, the number on the degree of threat (determined by the fastest time of entering into the affected area), № partsiala, in which the target is also a sign produced at this time of the transaction (search, tracking, etc.). While working in strong clutter for SOC envisaged the possibility of blanking signal from the direction of interference and scored plot distances to targets. As was necessary to introduce into the computer located in the coordinates of the target sector for generating targeting blanking by the manual covers the target marker and manual interference veiled «chipping» mark.
Resolution station azimuth detection was no worse than 1.5-2 degrees elevation — 4 degrees and 200 m — by range. The greatest error in determining the coordinates of targets was less than half of the units resolution capabilities.
Station to detect targets at a rate of 2-3 and receiver noise power level of 1.5 kW provided detection soaring at altitudes 30-6000 meters F-15 aircraft, at ranges up to 27 km with a probability of at least 0.8. Unmanned means of air attack at ranges 9000-15000 m detected with a probability of 0.7. Helicopter with rotating propellers, located on the ground, was detected at a distance of 7 km with a probability of 0.4 to 0.7, hangs in the air at a distance of 13-20 km with a probability of 0.6 to 0.8, but was carried out at the height of the jump 20 meters from the ground at a distance of 12 sq m with a probability of at least 0.6.
Oppression factor signals reflected from objects in the local analog channels receiving system SOC 40 dB, in a digital channel — 44 dB.
Protection against anti-radar missiles ensured their detection and defeat their anti-aircraft guided missiles.
Station guidance — coherent pulse radar centimeter range with small element phased array (phased array), was formed in elevation and azimuth beam width of 1 degree and provides electrical scanning in the respective planes. The station provides a search target azimuth sector 3 degrees and 7 degrees elevation, auto tracking in three dimensions one purpose monopulse method, start one or 2-anti-aircraft guided missiles (every 4 seconds) and their guidance.
Transfer aboard the guided missile teams carried out by a single transmitter station via a phased array antenna. This is due to the electric antenna beam scanning provides simultaneous measurement of target coordinates and 2 missiles induced her. Frequency beam appeal to objects — 40 Hz.
Resolution guidance station elevation and azimuth are not terrible — 1 degree in distance — 100 meters. Standard errors autotracking fighter in elevation and azimuth were less than 0.3 d y., In range — 7 m, speed — 30 m / s. RMS tracking error guided missiles in elevation and azimuth were of the same order in range — one 2.5 meters.
Guidance station receiver sensitivity at 4 x 10-13 W and average transmitter power of 0.6 kW provides a range of switching to automatic tracking fighter equal to 20 km with a probability of 0.8 and 23 kilometers with a probability of 0.5.
Rockets PU combat vehicle were without transport containers and launched via catapults powder vertically. The aerial combat and trigger devices in cars combined antenna-starter, which revolved about a vertical axis.
Solid antiaircraft guided missile 9M330 made under the «duck» and was equipped with a device that provides gas dynamic declination. In SAM used folding wings, drop-down and logged into the flight position after missile launch. In the transport position, right and left console were folded towards each other. 9M330 with active radio controlled fuses, radio unit, the autopilot rudder actuators, high-explosive fragmentation warhead with a slam-actuator had a power supply system of gas-dynamic system rudders at the launch site and control actuators gazopitaniya midcourse flight. On the outer surface of the rocket body located antenna and ODU radio controlled fuses, also mount gunpowder catapult device. In fighting machine rockets loaded with the help of transport and loading vehicle SAM.
Launch at startup ejected at a speed of 25 m / s catapult vertically. Declination guided missile at a given angle, the direction and magnitude of which was introduced with guidance station in autopilot before starting, before starting the rocket motor in the end expiration combustion products specials. gasifier through 4 dvuhsoplovyh block gas distributor mounted at the base of aerodynamic rudder. Regardless of the angle of the steering overlap flues leading to the nozzles directed back. Combining the gas distributor and aerodynamic vehicles in a single block gave the option to exclude the introduction of special. drive system declines. Gasdynamic device zaklonyaetsya rocket in the right direction, and then suspends her turn before turning the solid motor.
Start motor guided missile carried at a height of 16 to 21 meters (or at the end of the second delay from the start, or by reaching 50 degrees angle differences missiles from vertical). So Makar, the entire momentum of a solid rocket motor is spent on giving LRU speed toward the target. Set the speed of the rocket began after starting. At a distance of 1500 m speed was 700-800 meters per second. With the range of 250 meters began the process of command guidance. Due to the wide spread of performance targets movement (height — 10-6000 m and speed — 0-700 m / s) and linear dimensions (from 3 to 30 meters) for the management covering the warhead fragments of high-altitude targets on board guided missile with issued guidance station delay characteristics of radio controlled fuses, which are dependent on the speed of convergence and missile targets. At low altitudes provide for selection of the underlying surface, also triggering radiovryvatelya only goal.
Starting weight of anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 — 165 kg (including the weight of the warhead — 14.8 kg), body width -235 mm, length of the rocket — 2898 mm, wingspan — 650 mm.
Develop a set of several delayed due to difficulties in the development of tracked chassis. Joint tests of antiaircraft missile complex «Thor» held at Emba range (Managing Unuchko VR) in the period from December 1983 to December 1984 under the control of a commission headed by RS Asadulin SAM adopted the decision of the CC CPSU and the USSR from 19.03.1986.
Complex «Dagger» partially unified the complex «Thor» entered service after a further 3 years. By this time, for almost 10 years, ships at sea, which was designed for this complex, went virtually unarmed.
Mass production BM 9A330 organized at the Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant MCI, anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M330 — the Kirov MASHZAVOD them. XX Party Congress MAP tracked chassis — the Minsk Tractor Plant MSKHM.
The complex provides defeat targets flying at altitudes of 0.01-6 km, at a speed of 300 meters per second, the spectrum ranges 1.5 .. 12 km at 6000 m parameter to the greatest range of lesions in the target speed of 700 m / s was reduced to 5000 m elevation range of 0.05-4 km defeat narrowed, and the parameter to 4000 m planes effectiveness of lesions one antiaircraft guided missile was 0,3-0,77, helicopters — 0,5-0,88, remotely piloted aircraft devices — 0,85-0,955.
Transfer Time from marching in combat ready position — 3 minute, the reaction complex ranged from 8 to 12, loading a combat machine with the transport and loading vehicle — up to 18 minutes.
Organizational SAMs «Thor» drove in the anti-aircraft missile regiments divisions. The composition of regiments were regiment command post, four anti-aircraft missile batteries (consisting of 4 9A330 combat vehicles, the battery commander Fri), units of service and support.
Fri battery commander’s control points were temporarily PU-12M, as the command of the regiment Fri — SP-12M or MP22 machine command and control and machine data collection and information processing MP25 developed comprising means ASUV (automatic command and control system) and the front is also included in the set of PU auto chief defense division. With command of the regiment aunktom interfaced radar detection P-19 or 9S18 («Dome») which is part of the radar company regiment.
The main type of combat air defense missile system «Thor» — Battery life, but does not exclude or mixed centralized data management Battery commander air defense missile regiment and division chief of defense.
Immediately with the adoption of anti-aircraft missile complex «Thor» adopt modernization began at SAM.
Refining existing and developing new means of antiaircraft missile complex, received ind. «Tor-M1» (9K331) engaged in:
— Research Electromechanical Institute of Ministry of Radio Industry (leading enterprise of scientific production association «Antey») — head for anti-aircraft missiles «Tor-M1» in general (Efremov VP — Chief Designer) and military machine 9A331 (9A330 mod.) — Deputy. head designer and chief designer of the complex BM 9A331 — Drize IM;
— ON «Izhevsk Electromechanical Plant» Ministry of Radio Industry — in constructive revision BM;
— Kirov Machine ON them. XX Party Congress Minaviaproma — Design chetyrehraketnogo module 9M334 used in BM 9A331 (Zharyi ON — Chief Designer module);
— Ministry of Radio Industry Research Institute of automation (leading enterprise of scientific production association «Agate») — to develop in a separate development work unified battery enterprise «ranked» 9S737 (Šeršņovs AV — Chief Designer) and ICD «Torch» Minaviaproma and other organizations.
As a result, the modernization of anti-aircraft missile system entered the second channel is motivated, in an anti-aircraft guided missile warhead used material having inflated amazing properties, implemented modular conjugation anti-aircraft guided missiles with BM, increasing the probability of the affected area and low-flying targets, provided with a pair of MB Battery unified enterprise «ranked» for management members of the battery combat vehicles.
ORDNANCE air defense missile system «Tor-M1»:
— 9A331 combat vehicle;
— battery commander para 9S737;
— 9M334 missile module with 4 guided missiles 9M331 (in combat vehicle two modules).
The composition of those funds. provision and maintenance of this air defense missile system were tools used in the SAM «Thor», with completion of the transport car transport 9T245 and 9T231-loading vehicle in connection with the application in «Tor-M1» 9M334 missile module.
9A331 combat vehicle compared with 9A330 had subsequent differences:
— used brand new dual processor computer system having a significantly higher performance, implementing protection against incorrect routes, dual-channel operation, advanced multi-function control;
— in target detection station introduced: three-channel digital signal processing system that provides improved passive noise suppression without additional analysis jamming environment; the input devices receiver selective filter, switchable automatic, provides a more efficient electrical noise immunity and comparability station by frequency selection partsiala; amplifier to increase the sensitivity of input devices replaced the receiver; introduced automatic adjustment of power supplied in the station every partsial; changed the order of the review, which minimizes the strings of targets; introduced a method of protection against bad marks;
— pointing to the station introduced a new type of probing signal, which provides detection and automatic tracking of hovering helicopters in television-optical viewfinder introduced automatic support for elevation (it increases the accuracy of tracking), introduced an improved indicator commander, introduced hardware interfacing with unified battery KP » ranked » (Data communication equipment and radio stations).
For the first time in the practice of the creation of air defense missile system launcher used instead of 4-seater transport and launch container 9YA281 for guided missiles 9M331 (9M330) with the body which is made of duralumin alloys. Transport and launch container in the totality of the data was guided missiles 9M334 missile module.
Weight module with 4 guided missiles with catapults and transport and launch container was 936 kg. Body transport and launch container divided into four cavities diaphragms. Under the front cover (filmed before loading BM) are four foam protective cover, sealing each cavity transport and launch container and destroys the course of a rocket during its launch. In the lower part of the body establishes a mechanism for connecting the connectors employees circuits TPK and SAM. Transport and launch container cuits fighting machine connected through an onboard electronic connectors, located on each side of the container. Near the lids of these connectors were stoppered hatches to switch frequency Liter guided missiles when they are installed on the BM. Rocket modules for storage and transportation going in packages with beams — in a package up to 6 modules.
9T244 transport vehicle could carry two packages consisting of 4 modules, TRV — two packages consisting of 2-modules.
Anti-aircraft guided missile 9M331 was absolutely unified with 9M330 missiles (excluding material damaging parts warhead) and could be used in anti-aircraft missile complexes «Thor», «Tor-M1», also in the ship’s complex «Dagger».
Significant difference in air defense missile system «Tor-M1» from «Thor» was the presence of the battery unified enterprise «ranked» as part of its agents. Namely «ranked» intended for automatic control of fighting anti-aircraft missile system «Tor-M1» as part of a missile regiment armed with complex data. The structure of anti-aircraft missile regiment included item command and control (command post), four anti-aircraft missile batteries (each battery Unified Communist Party and four combat vehicles 9A331), and service support units.
The main purpose of the battery unified enterprise «ranked» with regard to air defense systems «Tor-M1» autonomous management was fighting the battery (with the production, control, perform combat missions combat vehicles, target allocation, target designation). Centralized management was implemented through a unified battery commander para batteries with team Fri Regiment. It was assumed that the team will be used Fri regiment command post vehicle MP22-P and special machine MP25-P, developed as part of automated command and control system of the front. With command Fri regiment was in turn must match the upstream manual — control station chief defense division, consisting of the designated machines. With this command were coupled Fri radar detection «Caste-2-2» or «Dome».
Battery indicator on standardized manual 9S737 displayed up to 24 targets for disk imaging from the upstream of the CP (Command Regiment Fri or Fri management division chief of defense), and up to 16 targets for disk imaging of BM own battery. Also displayed at least 15 ground targets, which led KP data exchange. Temp exchange was 1 second chance bring reports and teams more than 0.95. Dead time unified manual battery at the same target in the automatic mode was least 5 seconds. Fri allows operation with a topographic map and non-automated tablet air situation.
Information that is received from BM and other sources displayed on the indicator on the scale 12-100 km in the form of points and forms purposes. The structure forms goals were a sign of state. Facilities objectives and its number. Also on screen indicator displays the position reference point, a higher command Fri, radar, and the affected area of IP.
Uniform battery manual produced tseleraspredelenie between BM, target designation them and, when necessary commands ban opening fire. Deployment and training of the battery commander Fri work was least 6 minutes. All the equipment (and supply) was mounted on the chassis of light tracked armored multipurpose floating tractor MT forehead. Calculation command Fri consisted of 4 people.
State. tests air defense missile system «Tor-M1» conducted in March and December 1989, at Emba landfill (landfill manager Unuchko VR). Anti-aircraft missile system have adopted in 1991
Compared with anti-aircraft missile complex «Thor» opportunity to defeat the purposes of the model using a guided missile was increased and was as follows: when firing cruise missiles ALCM — 0,56-0,99 (in the «Tor» 0,45-0,95); by remotely-piloted aircraft type BGM — 0,93-0,97 (0,86-0,95); the aircraft type F-15 — 0,45-0,80 (0,26-0,75); on helicopters such as «Hugh Cobra» — 0,62-0,75 (0,50-0,98).
The affected area missile system «Tor-M1» while simultaneously firing two targets remained virtually such as SAM in «Thor» when firing at a single target. This is achieved by reducing the reaction time «Tor-M1» when fired from a position to 7.4 seconds (from 8.7) and when shooting with small stops to 9.7 seconds (from 10.7).
Loading time BM 9A331 missile with 2 modules — 25 minutes. This exceeded the time of separate loading ammunition 9A330 BM of 8 anti-aircraft missiles.
Mass production and technical means of combat air defense missile system «Tor-M1» organized enterprises producing means complex «Thor». New tools — unified battery 9S737 gearbox and four-seater TPK for guided missiles carried 9A331 respectively Penza radiofactory Ministry of Radio Industry and Production Association «Kirov Machine-Building Plant. XX Congress of the Party » Minaviaproma.
SAMs «Thor» and «Tor-M1», having no analogues in the world and capable of engaging airborne targets high-precision weapons, a lot of time showing their combat abilities to the highest military exercises, training and field firing and exhibitions of contemporary instruments in different countries. The global arms market, these complexes exhibit good competitiveness.
Complexes and now continues to improve. For example, the substitution works on tracked chassis of the GM-355 chassis GM-5955, developed in suburban Mytischi.
It is also working on options SAMs placing parts on a wheelbase — a self-propelled version «Thor M1TA» with accommodation by car «Ural-5323» hardware cab and trailer CHMZAP8335 — antenna-starting post, and towed version «Tor-M1B» (With accommodation for 2-trailers). By eliminating the cross on the road and increase clotting time / deployment to 8-15 minutes can decrease the price of the complex. In addition to steady work tested embodiment SAM — complex «Thor M1TS.»
The main characteristics of the type of anti-aircraft missile complex «Thor»:
Name — «Thor» / «Top-M1»
1. Lesion area:
— in range — 1.5 to 12 km;
— height — from 0.01 to 6 km;
— the parameter — 6 km;
2. Ability to defeat a fighter with the introduction of a guided missile — 0.26 .. 0.75 / 0.45 .. 0.8;
3. Maximum speed of the targeted objectives — 700 m / s;
4. Reaction time
— from the position — with 8.7 / 7.4;
— with rather short stop — 10.7 s / 9.7 s;
5. Airspeed anti-aircraft guided missiles — 700 .. 800 m / s;
6. Missile weight — 165 kg;
7. Warhead weight — 14.5 kg;
8. Deployment time (clotting) — 3 minutes;
9. Motivated number of channels — 1/2;
10. The number of guided missiles at military machine — 8;
11. Year adopting — 1986/1991.