Fins in boots

Fins in shoes.  Photo from

There is a disease, which does not take any ballet or in the army. In the daily life at her trying not to pay attention. But only as long as the foot will not resemble the seal flippers. Meet the flat!

Life — a movement, said someone of the wise. Those who are not able to fly, to move well, we need a minimum of feet. Do centipedes are many, cockroach six and a cat — four. Person, unlike animals have to go with just two legs. Unfortunately, it's not always good at it. The reasons for this may be many, but the most common of them — the flat.

Important bend

About the disease we all once in my life heard of. It seems to be for flat foot somehow properly arched, almost like a club foot, just the opposite. It seems to be the son of a neighbor in the military issued a "white card", because he has flat feet. Public opinion is unanimous: unless there is a real disease? Where high temperature, where hellish pain, do not give up at night? Well, what if man puts up strange, maybe it's more convenient.

What is a flat foot is actually known only for narrow specialists. In the West, these doctors called the podiatrist (not to be confused with gay men), and we have the same problem of flat feet in the old deal orthopedists. They are diagnosed, having carefully studied the patient's foot with the help of x-ray or on the eye.

The easiest test for flat feet can be carried out at home. To do this, thickly spread with fat cream soles and get up at a blank sheet of paper. If to get prints on the inside of each foot has a recess, and if it takes more than half of the deepening of the initial width of the foot, then everything is OK. Flat feet while you are not threatened. If the mark on the paper turned out even, as if the sole circled in pencil (that is, almost no cavities), it's time to sound the alarm.

Flat-footed, as the name implies, is called a disease in which the arch of the foot loses its natural concavity, andleg becomes flat. It would seem that such a small defect, but the harm from him very, very a lot. First, the person immediately changed gait. Secondly, begins to be worn out shoes unevenly, the inside faster than the outer. But it's not so bad. The worst thing is that these "flat" feet lose their ability to spring back when walking.

The human foot — the top of the evolution

The human foot is a complex mechanism, which, according to Charles Darwin, was formed for hundreds of thousands of years by natural selection and the struggle for survival. It is known that none of the animal does not springy arch of the foot. Even the bouncy kangaroo jerboa do without him. According to biologists, the appearance of the arch in humans is directly related to walking on two legs. The more straightened primitive ancestor, the greater became his groove on foot.

Our distant ancestors — ape moved to a completely flat feet. Pithecanthropus and Australopithecus also could not boast of a pronounced arch of the foot. But the leg Cro-Magnon have differed little from the foot of modern man. Most recently, in southern Italy, archaeologists have found sealed in volcanic rock tracks, which roughly 323-383 thousands of years. Scientist Chris Stenger, who heads the department of human origins at London's Natural History Museum, suggested that these footprints belong to the first Neanderthals. Thus, the primitive people who lived at the time somewhere between Pithecanthropus and Cro-Magnons. The central part of some of the tracks were found significantly narrowed, and therefore, it is in the early Neanderthals first appeared vault the foot. Once our ancestors, finally, got a concave foot, his life on two legs has become much more enjoyable. Body of walking springy and soften shock and overload.

My head hurts from the legs

The average modern person per day makes about ten thousand steps. And every time foot person experiencing shock18-20 g. Given that the acceleration of 10 g kicks off a spaceship, you can imagine how hard it is for our feet. Yes, and all the other parts of the body. If it were not for springs properties of the arch, each step we would have risked a concussion, and running and jumping could easily lead to death.

Scientists estimate that, thanks to the vaulted structure of the foot, is extinguished 70% overload. As a result, the effect of shin 6-7 g. Of course, spine, knee and hip joints are also capable of absorbing shock acceleration, but to a lesser extent. In normal operation, all the shock absorbers to the sensitive brain comes up quite moderate 05-1 g.

If a person has flat feet, it enters the body when walking in an extreme situation, something reminiscent of riding in a cart with iron wheels on the cobblestones. Outstanding arch of the foot shock wave instantaneously up the skeleton. At the same time, and goes to the joints and spine, and brain. Leg joints begin to wear out faster. The spine is curved to create an additional spring-damper for brain protection. And the brain, tired from excessive shock, meets constant headaches. The person feels overwhelmed, but do not even realize that the cause of his ailment — flat feet. And it would seem a little thing, a little folded inward stop.

Presumably, many people are suffering from a headache of unknown origin, have caught her in the appendage to flat feet. Great Julius Caesar, painful philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, the founder of communist views, Karl Marx, and Charles Darwin himself could very well be one of them. However, at the time of their flat for a disease no one thought so to confirm or refute this assumption today is not possible.

The foot of man consists of the tarsal bones, metatarsal bones and toes, which are connected by numerous joints. With the help of the ligaments and muscles of the foot forms a concavity, ie vaults. Only two of them: the basic longitudinal goes on the inner edge of the foot, cross under the fingers. To straighten the arches can cause a wrong positioning of the bones and the defect supporting system. Simply put, if the muscles and ligaments are stretched, they can not keep the arch of the foot … The result of one — flat feet.

The better — so much the worse

Podiatrist divide the causes of the disease into four groups. It happens flatfoot inborn defect in which the foot goes to the child inherited from mothers and fathers (3% of all cases). Even more rarely happens flatfoot associated with bruises, sprains and fractures of the foot. The third reason for flat feet — specific diseases: rickets, polio, diabetes. Fourth, the most important and common cause — lack or excess stress on your feet.

Flat feet — a tricky disease. It creates a strange impression that many of the benefits of civilization — its best friends. Smooth roads and floors, high-calorie food and obesity, fashionable shoes Old World, a sedentary lifestyle at a computer or driving a car, standing work of teachers, waiters and salespeople, fanatical workouts on treadmills — all of which can lead to flat feet.

According to medical statistics, people in the developed countries suffer from flat feet are much more likely than citizens of the Third World. For example, in Europe and America to 70% of people have some degree of flat feet, and in India this defect still occurs in only 4%. In the same India conducted an interesting study that found that the later the person starts wearing shoes, the less chance that he will earn a flat. For those who put on his boots for the first time after 16 years, it was even less than 2%.

Studs — a voluntary torture

Incidentally, the female flatfoot occurs four times more often than men. Explanation of this fact may be several. First, pregnancy increases the weight and, consequently, the load on the foot. Asecond Women often wear high-heeled shoes and a size smaller that the foot seemed more elegant. In the movie "Some Like It Hot", the hero Tony Curtis (Geraldine), examples of women in high heels, spoke gloomily: "How did they wear? It's a painful admission — eversion of the foot! "What to do, for the beauty of women agree to tolerate much. That's only then they have to pay flat-footed.

If anyone undertook to be the most harmful rating of shoes, then the first place, without a doubt would take a narrow imitation leather shoes with heels higher than 7 cm honorable second place went to raznoshennym favorite sneaker flat shoes. Bronze would share stiff "platform", boots and rubber boots. However, the most surprising would be a contender for fourth place — sneakers. Despite the springy soles and good fixation of the foot, they have a huge disadvantage: they allow the foot to be lazy. The sneaker takes almost the entire load during walking, and eventually the muscles and ligaments of the foot arch to become sluggish and weak, causing flat feet. This shoe is only good for a person with bad legs. Healthy, it can be useful only during exercise.

Signs of useful shoes are as follows: a low heel, toe free, where you can wiggle your fingers, flexible soles and arch support preventive. In the prevention of flat arch support — something irreplaceable. This elastic insole with nubs in different locations can evenly distribute body weight on the foot, helps to maintain the necessary arch concavity, in the end, makes the shoe more comfortable

The soul in exchange for arch support

Officially, the inventor of shoes with arch support was Salvatore Ferragamo (Salvatore Ferragamo) (1898-1960), Italian, who by 1924 favorite shoemaker Hollywood stars, author of over three hundred inventions, including high heels and sandals. Composed legends about him. It was said that God himself gave Salvatore talent. Some believed that the secret behind the creation of comfortable shoes he sold his soul to the devil. However, in reality, it was much easier. Master Salvatore studied anatomy at the University of Southern California and graduated from the chemical engineering Faculty of the University of Pennsylvania. Having dealt with the structure of the human foot and strength of materials, Ferragamo realized that the shoes will be much more convenient if the arch of the foot lay a small pillow. So there was the first shoes with arch support. Since then, many shoe manufacturers began to actively use this innovation in their products.

In addition to the instep, there are other ways to make life easier for people who suffer from flat feet. In the most severe and advanced cases will save only a surgeon's scalpel, but if the disease has not gone too far, to help special massage and exercises for the feet. However, we should not deceive ourselves. Flat feet can not be completely cured, you can only stop the process and reduce its adverse effects on the body, especially the spine and brain.

By the way, the recruits of note: with flat feet I and II of the Army can not hang, but with III and IV level in peacetime do not call.

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