The attack on infantry combat vehicles (armored personnel carriers) is applied to the area available to them in the process of coming to an enemy, quickly jumping to the defense, in the absence of organized resistance, as in this case, when the enemy's defenses firmly suppressed, and most of it is destroyed by anti-tank weapons. We publish a discussion paper dedicated to finding good methods to protect infantry units at the coming on fortified positions.
So you can not act
The strategy of the coming of the infantry on the enemy's defenses was worked out during the Russian war majestically. At first the enemy's defenses under fire from guns, mortars and multiple rocket launchers on it bombed. When you attack the tanks on foot moving infantry. In front of tanks organized itself-move barrage (breaks own shells and mines) at a distance of over 200 meters. Infantry with all this, suffered tremendous loss of guns and bullets of small fragments.
It has been almost 70 years since that time. How to attack the enemy's defenses modern mechanized infantry units (platoon, company, etc.)? The strategy of attack infantry platoon (company) depends first of armored vehicles that are in service with the Army (NE). At the current time it tanks (T-90 and others) and infantry fighting vehicles (BMP-3 and others). At the theoretical level, two options are likely platoon attack when available.
The first is that the attack involved a tank, moving him three BMP-3 with 30 fighters (nine people — the crew and 21 people — landing). In this case, the landing in BMP begins to move from the turn of the attack and did not actually engaged in combat until such time as it is not dropped off from cars.
In a second embodiment, the motorized infantry platoon (MCB) storms followed by: front tank, then motorized infantry on foot, followed by moving three BMP-3, which are fire over the heads of infantry. Specifically, these two versions of the attack and prescribed by the present military regulations for the preparation and conduct of combined arms, enacted by order of the Commander of the Land Forces — Deputy Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation of August 31, 2004 № 130 (Part 2. Battalion, company. Part 3. Platoon, compartment tank).
Figure 1 shows a diagram of MSW attack on foot to the fortified defenses on the current military regulations. Ahead of moving the tank for him — on foot motorized three offices (MSO), a total of 21 people. Next — three BMP-3 (crew — three people). The commander of the attacking platoon is one of the commanders of the BMP-3.
What are the main shortcomings of such strategies?
If you implement the first option (BMP attack with troops), the possibility of the death of 3-fighting vehicles, along with 30 fighters great, as BMP-3 is vulnerable to the front feathered armor-piercing projectiles (BOPS) 30-50 mm caliber used by modern zabugornom BMP "Puma" (Germany), CV-90 (Sweden) and others. Penetration of these shells is seeking the assistance of 200 mm with startling machine is normal at a distance of 100 meters. Duralumin board BMP-3 40 mm armor-piercing breaks 20-40-mm shells at least what actually angles. The main drawback of this option is to attack that Troopers (21 people) are practically not involved in combat.
Make out the second version of the attack. The speed of movement of the shooters is small (five to seven miles per hour), the soldiers are feeble protection (body armor). Cannon (automatic, RPG) is actually applicable to deal with the enemy firing points (dug-in tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, concrete pillboxes). Because a strong possibility of liquidation of all 3 MCO prior to their approach to the frontal edge of the defense.
So Makarov, modern armored vehicles (BMP-1 and BMP-2, BMP-3, BTR-80 and BTR-90) do not apply to conduct a successful attack against a fortified defense in its depth. Their implementation is not predutverzhdaet highest probability of hitting soldiers and officers infantry units, also the appliances. Both options are prescribed by military regulations to attack a fortified defense, no good.
At the current time, the Defense Ministry has completed the purchase of tanks and infantry fighting vehicles, but conducts R & D to create 3 types of armored vehicles: the languid — crawler (tanks and "heavy" infantry fighting vehicles), medium — on wheels (APCs) and light (such as armored cars " Tiger "). With regard to the topic of this article we are interested in the "heavy" BMP (TBMP) on a platform of "Armata", which should be designed on the same basis with new tank in 2015. But the future system of combat vehicles will also be unable to remove the cost of the options considered an attack on a fortified enemy defenses.
1st option (for MSW) defenses storm tank "Armata" and three TBMP with troops on board (maybe more — 21 people) who are not involved in combat during the attack. There is a supreme opportunity to defeat these TBMP along with the crew and landing (of 30 people). This may be applied to ammunition that bad parries Russian active and dynamic protection: M829A3 armored BOPS (USA) with 800 mm armor-piercing, cumulative ammunition, acting on the lumen above the roofs of cars — ATGM Bill (Sweden), Tow 2B (USA); homing cluster munitions EFP — SMArt-155 (Germany), SADARM (USA).
The second option for a tank attack as before moving on foot chain infantry, for which there are three TBMP. Poorly protected and poorly armed foot soldiers are defending fighter for the existing landfill targets. Because of their great opportunity to complete destruction during the attack, and even more so in the rear of the enemy.
So Makar, indigenous bugs attack options with the introduction of modern armored vehicles (weak protection of dismounted infantry, the highest possibility of liquidation TBMP with troops, non-participation in the machines located in combat troops) are not addressed.
As can be seen, if there is a re-Army on TBMP at which require billions of dollars in costs, mechanized infantry units fighting capacity remains in the same poor condition as it is now.
The fundamental error in the formation of armored vehicles for infantry units (platoon, company) is that the BMP (BMP-3 and planned TBMP — languid caterpillar "Armata" and the average caterpillar "Kurganets-25") are endowed with 2 functions: 1) The transport of troops on the front line, the role in the defense of our forces, and 2) the role in the attack on the enemy's defenses and fight deep in the enemy's defense. To perform the second function of BMPs is inapplicable in this case, even when it has a protection level of the tank.
We offer a special machine to have two: one for the transport of troops on the front line (eg BMP-3) and a second, very adap
ted to contact battle during the attack, and the breakthrough. Such a machine must have the right weapons for the fight against dug tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, armored personnel carriers, pillboxes, the infantry in the trenches, reliable protection against a massive fire, the mobility of more than tanks, a small number of fighter in the attacking machine.
In this case, need a different strategy and attack fortified defense. It involved the classic fighting vehicles (modernized T-72, T-80, T-90 or "Armata") and 10 armored fighter (BMS). The crew of each BMS consists of three persons — the commander, gunner and driver.
Figure 2 shows a diagram of the platoon attack with BMS: tank (three people), BMS (30 patients) and a command vehicle (four people). Each of the 37 infantry are fighting intensively during the attack. They are well protected and armed.
Platoon with BMS also advisable to have an assault machine (CMM). BMS uses modular armor protection. Without removable armor weight BMS — 12-14 tons, and with removable armor — 25. The machine is in a version with a mass of 12-14 tons can be used airborne troops. The equivalent thickness by broneprobitiyu in frontal projection BMS is more than 200 mm, and from the sides — 100. The frontal part of the BMS is able to withstand the impact of modern BOPS to 30-50-mm guns, and side armor "holds" this projectile at an angle of 60 degrees from the normal.
BMS is required to have the following types of protection: active type "Arena" is a dynamic and modern against the cumulative anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) and hand grenades (RPGs). BMS can be used successfully in the fighting in the towns and mountains. The ratio of the engine power to the weight and size of the ground pressure at BMS is not worse than that of the tank.
BMS can be rapidly and relatively inexpensive (less than basic infantry fighting vehicles), created on the basis of the BMP-3, since these machines is used as one and the same military branch (combat unit — BM) "Bakhcha-U" (100-mm rifled gun with ammunition of 40 high-explosive shells, 30-mm cannon with 500 rounds, 7.62 mm with 2,000 rounds, four 100 mm caliber anti-tank), and the same engine-transmission compartment with the engine UTD-32T capacity of 660 horsepower. The main difference between BMS (it has no landing) and BMP-3M (with landing) — the material body. The modular armor — the first case, Dural — 2nd. In addition, these machines of different sizes: BMS almost 1.5 times shorter than the BMP-3. Mass of the BMP-3M and BMS actually monotonous.
Preliminary calculations showed that if the price TBMP comparable to the price of a tank, and the price is not higher than the price BMS BMP-3, which is half the price of the T-90, the cost of weapons platoon in the first scenario, the amount 4C, where C — the price of a tank T-90. Price weapons platoon leader in the 2nd scenario — 6C.
But excessive protection and fire power platoon with BMS (second scenario) can not be used in the coming Motorized Infantry Company (MCP, 12 combat vehicles and 99 fighter) against the defending platoon, as prescribed by the charter of Battle, but only one platoon with BMS. In this case, the "cost of the offensive" in the 2nd scenario would be less than half (against 6C 12C). By the way, the study asks the definition of a good size front in the 2nd scenario.
Ways of improving
The effectiveness of the platoon with BMS can significantly increment if the system "tank — 10 BMS" add assault machine (CMM), which can be done by the modernization of T-72, T-80, T-90 or on the platform, "Armata". In this case, the 125-mm gun replaced with 152-millimeter howitzer, firing the same ammunition (CFC, corrected "Centimeter" or controlled "Krasnopol"), and that the self-propelled howitzer "MSTA." CMM allows you to increment the highest firing range for charging from 7 to 13 km. With all of this in almost all cases, there is no need to seek the help of long-range artillery or aircraft, which gives a gain in time and accuracy of hitting the target. This allows you to implement the principle of "saw — shot."
An important problem of charging for a BMS is shooting at invisible targets FFS and guided missiles such as "Arkan" and "Krasnopol." To ensure effective shooting needs UAVs with a range of 20-25 km of the "Aileron-3" Development of CJSC "ENIKS."
For control of 12 combat vehicles in a platoon with BMS need command vehicle (CM), which when attacking moves with the CMM for the BMS and the tank (Fig. 2). At platoon specifically in the manual are four people: a tank commander and CMM also two commanders MCO each containing 5 BMS (recall the platoon an old type of three MSO). All BMS must have a connection between them, they managed to KM, which is armed combat information control system (CICS), also get timely information on the tactical situation in the band's own responsibility from the higher-level managers. So Makar, all BMS should be integrated into the automated information system of command and control (ASUV) tactical level and be one of shock and burn parts of a network-centric combat system combining into a single reconnaissance information field (SSIS) of weapons of various types.
ASUV should begin to create specifically at the tactical level (platoon, company), and in our army build on top of it stubbornly. This ASUV that is being created (ESU TK) actually does not work as in the existing system of combat vehicles (based on the T-90 and BMP-3), and in promising (tank "Armata" and TBMP). Action ASUV finish as poorly protected and poorly armed motorized infantry out of the BMP and start hiking attack under saturated fire.
Platoon and company with BMS should provide the individual machines and first tank collective defense against air attack and tank-dangerous forces. The platoon should conduct electronic warfare (EW), to keep putting in precision-guided munitions and have protection from helicopters and airplanes. Technical properties of BM "Bakhcha-U" provides defeat of modern helicopters and attack aircraft, not counting those goals need to fight with intelligence and impact UAVs homing submunitions with EFP type SADARM, antitank guided missile hitting a tank top and difficult to access for destruction by complex "Arena." To address these objectives in the company of the period to give SAM coming of the "Tor-M2".
The war of the future
Now almost all the countries actively developed industrial and military boots. For example, in the United States since 2003 was carried out programm creation of armored combat vehicles, in which designed light armored vehicles with their crews (combat vehicles exploration and definition of the tactical situation, honey, repair), also combat and support bots (for clearance and transportation), four types of UAVs. The basic idea is that applets that developed the system of machines required to have a single control system, the new means of communication, reconnaissance and target designation. This allows the protection of lightly armored vehicles to compensate for the ability to stay ahead of the enemy in determining the tactical situation, the speed of decision-making and application of fire damage.
Certainly, such advantages troops dramatically raise their combat effectiveness. It greatly enhanced if the war machines will be reliable and reservations, dynamic and active protection. The extensive use of armored robots (BIS) for CB will allow proceed from the principle of "soldiers shooting» (XX century) to the principle
of "soldiers manager" (XXI century), which is significantly lower losses in manpower.
In Russia, there are fundamental technological advance in the field of robotics — both military and civilian. This allows R & D to create the BIS applicable for the coming battles and in-depth defense. Namely, considered earlier BMS potentially prepared for the conversion of the BIS, as BM "Bakhcha-U" to a large extent automated. Management of the BIS may be fighters from BMS from up to 500-1000 meters. In this case, the platoon with the BIS will be armed with 10 BIS, 10 BMS, tank-robot CMM CM. PERSONNEL — 40 people.
Figure 3 is a diagram of an attack platoon with BIS: a total of 37 people and 23 vehicles. With all of this realization of the principle of warfare XXI century, when bots are pin fight with the enemy, and the soldiers of the BMS control these robots, which guarantees small loss in manpower. In our assessment, the platoon with the BIS has the firepower at eight times greater than the figure for MSW with BMP-3 also has a much better protection.
Make out the possible options for the structure and composition of the infantry units (platoon, company, battalion and brigade) NE at their facilities BMS and the BIS. Should be considered the main stages of the offensive operations (concentration of troops at the turn of attack, attack, fight deep in defense, securing the captured positions), for all that is needed for each step has its own system of combat vehicles.
Platoon with BMS. To attack and fight in the depth of the defense need four combat vehicles: tank, BMS, BL and CM (of 13 cars and 40 people). Platoon with BMS comes in breaking the enemy's defense platoon. After the capture of the reference Fri need fixing infantry platoon of the area, in other words, each platoon with BMS must be supported by a platoon of "normal" infantry (three infantry fighting vehicles and 30 people). As such, as applicable BMPs were armed with BMP-2 and BMP-3 and the projected TBMP platforms "Armata" and "Kurganets-25." At the first time, it should give preference to the BMP-3, since the creation of these machines established. In addition, BMS, BMP-3M, BMD-4M have the highest level of unification by BM "Bakhcha-U" and of the engine compartment with the engine UTD-32T. This helps to reduce production and operating costs. In addition, BMP-3 — is a well-armed floating machine, necessary for NE frisky overcome aqua-bottlenecking and the defense on the opposite shore.
Company with BMS. In every company should have two platoons with BMS (80 people and 26 vehicles) and two platoons from the BMP-3M (60 people, 6 of BMP-3M). Such a structure will allow to have a combat-ready unit able to carry out without the help of other companies under the command of the main stages of coming: the attack on the two platoons in the defense, fight deep in defense, securing the support platoon captured enemy Fri. So Makarov, a company with BMS will consist of four platoons and be armed with 20 BMS, two tanks, two CMM, two CM and BMP-3M 6 (of 32 vehicles and 140 people).
The battalion with BMS. If the three companies in the battalion (420 persons, 60 BMS, 6 tanks, 6 BL, 6 KM and 18 BMP-3), and a motorized infantry brigade — three battalions, the brigade with BMS, there would be 1,260 infantry, 180 BMS, 18 tanks 18 CMM, 18 km and 54 BMP-3. Just full of modern brigade 4,500, while in at least one third of their infantry. The team is a new type of such proportion infantry and other units (rockets, artillery, engineering) will remain.
Associate brigade combat effectiveness with BMS and the "regular" teams with BMP-3 (or TBMP after 2015) is silly. In the first case, all the 1260 fighter prepared for the role of a successful attack and fight in the depth of the defense, as they are well protected and have the right weapons, whereas in the 2nd case, two-thirds of infantry essentially not involved in combat during the attack BMP-3 ( or TBMP) with troops on board.
To reiterate, the possibility of destruction of infantry during the attack on foot is very high, because the modern infantry brigades actually apply for an attack fortified defense and fight in its depth.
It will be a big mistake to equip infantry brigades "heavy" BMP instead of BMS since spent hundreds of billion rubles will not give perceptible increase the combat effectiveness of the solution of the problems.