Automatic Korobov TKB-454 mod. '52 With wood butt
The adoption of the AK-47, despite a number of shortcomings, certainly been a great achievement Russian weapons science. Automatic loved the troops for the simplicity of the device, reliability and compact size (compared with SKS carbine). But it was not cheap, and has laid down re immense burden on the bloodless war, the economy and threaten to stretch out for decades. Creating new machines only nekordinalno exceeded their decline as a result of intense training. Because SKS carbines were armed with infantry units, even right up to the mid-60s, and in some military branches and more than that. In addition, an increase in the requirements for mobility of troops enforced a review and weight-bearing equipment every fighter weight guns with ammunition in the structure of which was (for the AK-47 with 4 shops and 120 cartridges, belt, bayonet and cartridge pouch ZiP'om) 9 kg. All these requirements will gain a legitimate force only in 1953 when developing the tactical and technical requirements for the lightened newcomer machine. And now let us return to 1951
Disadvantages of AK-47 and not eliminated either before taking it into service, under establishing mass production, spurred a number of other weapons designer to continue work on the design of automata own designs, with passive-GAC took a wait (and suddenly it will), and The Ministry of Defence has funded their industry. The pioneer of this work was representative of CDB-14 Tula professional designer GA Korobov. In 1951, he presented for field testing machine very own unique design with occasionally used method of the automation — blowback. Overall automatic characterized by simplicity of design and manufacturability of parts (and mean and low-complexity and cost), most of which was manufactured way cool stamping of sheet steel. No hard bolt lock not only spared time consuming and debugging it, and unloaded receiver, which significantly reduce the weight of the machine (0.65 kg). An important economic factor was the introduction without any additional dodelok commercially available store of the AK-47. The principle of the act was based automation:
— grooves on the loading chamber large cross section, which provides an early and effective unloading of the chamber;
— backwater on the sleeve in the chamber during the shot free mass inertia of the body, acting on the sleeve does not specifically, but through a lever, creating the desired back pressure sleeve small mass of the free inertial body.
Before shooting of the bolt is in the last position of the front, namely:
— Combat larva with the drummer and the ejector is based on the stub shaft;
— The lever is in a substantially vertical position, with emphasis on the lower edge of the fence jumpers receiver in its middle part, neck to fighting bot, and upper feathers takes a longitudinal forward pressure from the stem bolt, buttressed revertible spring.
When fired, the pressure is transmitted through the sleeve of a combat bot a lever that by emphasizing the focus box turns around and throws the barrel bolt back. During the turn of the lever pressure in the barrel drops to atmospheric, and the barrel bolt is in store kinetic energy, enough to roll back to the last position. But to fully appreciate automatic Korobov all features not represent the probability due to low survivability clutch barrel. The fact that the bulk of the chamber, except for its rear part, has been formed in the barrel. The trunk mounted with an interference fit in the socket, which created the lower walls of the grooves and the back of the chamber length of 8 mm.
In 1952, tests were modified machines are based on the opinion of SPM, the GAC from 8/24/51
Automatic Korobov TKB-454 mod. '52 With an iron butt
Conducted in 1952, tests showed that the actions of the Reliability of automation in the ordinary and different criteria for operation, survivability details automatic Korobov satisfies № 3131-45, the TTT and has advantages over a Kalashnikov in weight, by grouping the battle for malotrenirovannyh shooters, the simplicity of the design, development and production. Coupled with the fact the tests revealed low overhead strength of many parts and a number of design flaws of individual units, the list of which took two sheets.
In 1953, CDB-14 has submitted to the tests modified machines Korobov. These machines chamber with grooves, except pooled entrance was formed in the clutch shaft, hardened virtually all the details, and cadmium plating moving parts (quite valuable and harmful creation) is replaced by phosphate.
By this time, have been developed tactical and technical requirements for the newcomer machine TTT № 006256-53 city, tests have been conducted on their compliance.
The test results have shown the need for the majority of completions machines. But for all that was
identified a number of features inherent in the scheme of automation applied:
— initial velocity bullets on average 38,5 m / s lower than the AK-47 due to the presence of grooves in the chamber;
— uneven rate of fire, both for normal and degraded in the criteria for operating the change of which reached 185 rds. / min. (Three times more than the AK). The reason for this specific work of the self-timer (constructive), playing the role of stem protivootskoka speed and rate of fire retardant;
— shooting bursts of regular blank ammunition is not possible. Requires the development of enhanced blanks;
— muzzle flash when shooting significantly greater in magnitude and intensity than the AK (Forsa length of 200-250 mm to 30-40 mm), which explains the lower completeness of the explosive decomposition due to the introduction of gunpowder blowback. The curve of pressure in the chamber has the lowest maximum pressure greater pressure rise time to the highest, greater time pressure acts to the departure of the bullet.
Despite the trivial shortcomings of the system, marked with two good points — the mass to less than 465 g AK-47 costs and machine-hours approximately 2.2 times less than for AK-47 — certainly influenced the final conclusion: "For the final decision on the need to continue work on the forthcoming automatic Korobov advisable to make a small series (about 20 pcs.) of machines and subject them to a broad comparative tests with Kalashnikovs in the courses" The Shot "in the rifle tactical committee at the test site and the long-term operation in the army. " What has been realized.
Research automatic machine Korobov was carried out research work, it is virtually impossible to justify the
creation of a reference neotkaznogo under this scheme. But GA Korobov will never give in to technical difficulties and the continued refinement of the system right up to 1956
But it will be more to come. And in 1953, it seemed that the "star" of Mikhail Kalashnikov AK and its already passe.