The development of air weapons makes it very tough challenges for the defense. Before modern SAMs are most puzzles growth and reduce the short-range damage and similar requirements in terms of speed of the targeted objectives.
About this says deputy director of the Institute of Political and Military Analysis, Alexander Hramchihin.
On the one hand, it becomes more and more urgent hitch struggle with hypersonic objectives on the other — hit small, inconspicuous and low-speed UAV (including mini and even micro-UAVs), as cruise missiles.
Second of these problems need further actualizes the creation of new means of exploration, which has long since become a burning frisky in the criteria of EW and "stealth" technology. A further discrepancy is the fight against high-precision weapons (SD ASD), which requests the significant growth ammunition SAM.
SVKN mainstream in the development of mass production of drones becomes very different types (see "UAVs MQ-9" Reaper "to the WJ-600 marks the latest era").
The second is frisky mainstream development of long-range cruise missiles (see "Tomahawk" and his heirs ").
Finally, as mentioned above, all more become a severe problem of precision-guided munitions, which are, in fact, the short-range cruise missiles (in general, this "small" range is becoming more and more income is up to hundreds km). Here are most succeeded USA, which created a huge number of similar types of munitions (GBU-27, AGM-154 JSOW, AGM-137 TSSAM, AGM-158 JASSM, and more. Etc.).
Well, obviously, has not disappeared regular manned aircraft (see "Manned combat aircraft — the limit of development?"), Which is as yet the most massive class SVKN and the main carrier of high-precision weapons, electronic warfare and anti-radar missiles and even more complicating life defense.
The increasing of the flight range of high-precision weapons are increasingly displays aircraft from air defense zone offense, leaving the last nepriznatelnuyu, and, more precisely, absolutely hopeless puzzle combat ammunition, not the carriers.
In such a situation, the effectiveness of ammunition can practically be 100%: hit the target or ammunition, or to distract yourself one or even a few missiles, promoting, by exhaustion defense.
Improving SVKN may result in severe crisis ground air defense, as shown by the last war. The Vietnam War and remained the only one in which ground-based air defense struggled with the aircraft, at least on an equal footing.
After it won defense aircraft constantly, and often one hundred percent of its suppressed. In the field of aviation is more room for maneuver, because, as the attacker, she always has the initiative in the fight against air defenses. In addition, the disposal of aircraft is potentially space.
On the other hand, ground VOP even less than aircraft, is dependent on the weather test. At ground air defense capabilities through extensive energy even the smallest dimensions and weights restrictions on missiles and their launchers, and in some cases the availability of energy from external sources, it can be significant in its own possession ammunition missiles and / or shells.
Defense also has the advantage that for SAM overload capability is many times more than for manned aircraft. In general, all of the above fraction becomes unmanned SVKN, which also still have fewer restrictions on overload.
As mentioned article first before modern and promising SAM and ZRPK become increasingly contradictory requirements: must be able to immediately fight with hypersonic orbiters and a micro-UAV, having dimensions of insects and the same as that of the speed. Apparently, to solve the first puzzle will be even easier.
In fact, back in the late 80's, many promising air defense missile systems (for example, C-300) were designed to defeat even non-existent hypersonic targets. The struggle for such purposes will claim "only just" coming growth speed and range missiles that will lead to a blurring of the boundary between air and missile defense.
"At the same time," such missiles because of the large range of flight, will be able to fight with the aircraft carrier of precision instruments, as with the Communist Party, AWACS aircraft and electronic warfare. By the way, it is entirely possible that in this particular direction the Americans, creating a missile defense system, increasing the speed and range missiles "Standard".
In Russia, fixated on the "weakening of our strategic nuclear capability," while in the United States are likely to think more deeply, more extensive and more. The last thing they motivate our ICBMs, because they did not mind and went to talk to us a global nuclear war is not collected.
They do a very promising means to deal with SVKN of various class and range of speeds and altitudes, and whose right it will SVKN — is another matter. The true problem of hypersonic missiles would be in case of a decrease in their size and range.
First in the world maneuvering hypersonic missile Kh-90 "Koala" ("AS-19 Koala")
At such missiles (about them in detail discussed in Article "More efficient air weapons or clogging studs microscopes?") Air defense did not even have time to react, even more so — to shoot them down.
Decimeter range air defense radar "Gamma-D / DE '
Fight with long-range cruise missiles — hard question, but, again, solve. The same C-300 was created, namely for its decision. With regard to the cruise missiles, as you know, the most difficult — it does not kill, but to find.
Apparently, in this connection, will the future development of radar decimeter and meter ranges, with all this SAM and SAM systems are specifically interfaced with various external means of exploration.
In general, if the speed will increase cruise missiles (ie, they remain inconspicuous and low-flying, will be over-and then hypersonic), fight with them will be very difficult, especially when their massive use.
More difficult it will be to fight the massive use of small precision-guided munitions, if it does not reach the destruction of their carriers before reaching the limit of the missile launch and release ASD. As mentioned above, the effectiveness of such munitions can be 100%, because they would be killed or purpose, or exhaust the air defenses.
After all, the most difficult problem of getting small drones. During the 2008 war over the positions of Russian paratroopers impunity hung Georgian UAV made in Israel.
MANPADS "Igla" in the launch tube 9P39 and missiles 9M39
Homing missiles MANPADS "Igla" could not take it because of the very low level of thermal radiation, the "big" air defense system in the paratroopers were not, but it is unlikely to be able to shoot down the drone because of its very low ESR. A burst of gun BMP-2 was unable to reach it, as the UAV was flying pretty high.
Fortunately, he was not the shock, and intelligence, with all this data is transmitted to them "timid Georgians" did not help. If we had a more appropriate opponent — the consequences would be disastrous out. The general application of mini-and micro-UAVs will create excellent air defense problems.
At all clear how to find them at least, even more so — to kill (not a fly swatter to peel them). Apparently, the fight against small-sized targets at short distances (regardless of the speed purposes, that is, as with the UAV, and with precision-guided munitions) will rest with the ZSU and ZRPK that will use both radar and optical-electronic reconnaissance.
All the more so that artillery can fight and ground targets, providing, namely, anti-sabotage protection "huge" SAM. In addition, only with guns can cope with the problem of depletion of ammunition in the event of a massive air defense missiles and the introduction of ASD.
As to any other type of aircraft, air defense needs lasers that will solve most of the problems identified. Shooting from guns on mini-and micro-UAVs, or against the creation of mini-and micro-Zour hardly realistic.
In the U.S. military developed a laser power of 100 square
The laser is fully able to solve the problem of. It is also perfect as a funds control precision-guided munitions. Taking into account that for land and naval defense restrictions on the size and power consumption is still less than for aircraft, fully actually do battle laser short-range air defense.
If you focus specifically on a small range of defeat, even easier to solve the main problem of laser weapons: beam scattering and loss of power. At medium and large distances candidacy missiles there is not expected.
Upgraded jammer SPN-30. Created for electronic suppression (RAP) in the expanded working range of frequencies available, including the modernization of past airborne radar to protect ground and air targets
In addition, an important means of defense will be the REB, which should provide the electronics SVKN oppression of the enemy and breaking the link with the UAV (as in the standard even getting control over enemy UAV). EW has already shown the effectiveness of Iran, capturing the South American drone-"invisible» RQ-170 "Sentinel".
So Makar, a promising-missile defense is likely to be a combination of guns, lasers, and electronic warfare to low and partially on the medium-range anti-aircraft missiles to the middle, large and very large distances.