Pain and heaviness in the stomach after serving ice cream, bloating after a couple of spoons of cottage cheese — these symptoms often suggest such disease as lactase deficiency.
Intolerance to milk suffer from several million people worldwide. Of course, not all of lactase deficiency is expressed the same way, someone is experiencing discomfort from a glass of milk, and someone may develop vomiting after a piece of cheese.
Lactase deficiency leads to the fact that a person with reduced food intake of lactose, which is milk and milk-containing products (cheeses, cottage cheese, yogurt, fermented baked, etc.). This adversely affects the health, since in addition to the lactose in the above products includes many essential body substances. Thus, the cow milk contains about 20 amino acids (in this case many essential amino acids in human milk than in meat or vegetable protein), a 20 vitamins and minerals 25. It is known that milk — it is the main source of calcium — indispensable macrocell, the lack of which leads to states like tooth decay, increased bone fragility, brittle nails and hair.
The reasons lie in reducing failure lactase activity — an enzyme responsible for cleaving lactose into the intestine.
Lactose intolerance is of two kinds:
- Primary lactase deficiency, which is caused directly by decreased activity of the enzyme;
- secondary lactase deficiency develops due to damage to the intestinal cells — enterocytes — which produce lactase, which reduces the amount of the enzyme. This may be due to infectious, inflammatory, autoimmune processes or be a consequence of food allergies (e.g., cow's milk protein.)
If the treatment of secondary lactase deficiency, in most cases it is sufficient to cure the underlying disease that caused it, in the case of primary lactase deficiency all the more complicated.
The cause of primary lactase deficiency relates to genetics. The fact that the gene responsible for the production of lactase, and hence for the assimilation of lactose appeared in the human population relatively recently — about 7,000 years ago in Northern Europe. Over time, it has spread in the population, but there are still ethnic group where the gene frequency tends to zero or just very low, for example, these include the American Indians, the Chinese, the Japanese, the people of Southeast Asia, and others.
In Russia, the frequency of lactase deficiency is, according to various estimates, from 10 to 75% of the population (this variation is due to the different regions of residence and ethnicity).
It should be noted that the primary lactase deficiency is more types. For example, in congenital deficiency of lactase enzyme is not produced in the child at birth, which greatly complicates the choice of nourishment for the baby. This type of lactase deficiency is extremely rare.
Lactase deficiency in premature infants, due to the fact that the enzyme lactase activity peaks only 37-40 week fetal development.
The most common primary lactase failure adult-type, due to reduction in lactase activity after the end of the breastfeeding period (seen in adults and in children after 3-5 years). The rate of decline of enzyme activity due to genetically predetermined and ethnicity.
Fortunately, the manufacturers of milk and milk-containing products for a long time attended the release of products for patients with lactase deficiency.
They can be divided into two major categories — a product with a low lactose content, or even without it. Such foods are all of the same minerals, amino acids and other useful substances, as well as usual except lactose.
Thus, the stores are well represented lactose free infant formula, there are lactose-free cheese, and since 2008 has appeared in the Russian market and lactose-free milk "Valio Zero Lactose". The company "Valio" makes it to the Finnish own unique technology, which is the result of research that lasted 10 years.
In order to improve the absorption of lactose in milk product added to the enzyme lactase. As a result, the milk can get unusually sweet taste. The fact that Lactase breaks down milk sugar (lactose) into simple sugars glucose and galactose, which are sweeter than lactose.
The result of a decade of research has patented and award-winning technology of membrane filtration "Valio", which allows you to get milk with natural flavor, containing less than 0.01% lactose. To date, this technology has reached such a level that the taste lactose-free milk "Valio Zero Lactose" is identical to natural.
Thanks to this development, millions of Russians now have the ability to drink milk is beneficial and stay healthy.