Leukemias

What we used to consider "blood cancer" oncologists called "gemoblastozamom". That fact, "Leukemia" — is not one disease, but a group of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic tissue. In the case when tumor cells invade bone marrow (The place where form and mature blood cells), leukemia called hematological malignancies. If the tumor cells proliferate out of the bone marrow, it is about gematosarkomah.

What is it?

Leukemias (Leukemia) — is not one disease, but several. All are characterized by a certain type of transformation in malignant hematopoietic cells. Thus irrepressible cancer cells begin to multiply and replace normal bone marrow cells and blood.

Depending on precisely which blood cells become cancerous, identify several types of leukemia. For example, lymphocytic leukemia — a defect of the lymphocytes, myeloid leukemia — a violation of normal maturation of granulocytic leukocytes.

All leukemias are divided into acute and chronic. Acute leukemia is the uncontrolled growth of young (immature) blood cells. In chronic leukemia, the blood, lymph nodes, spleen, liver and rapidly increasing number of more mature cells. Acute leukemia become much heavier than the chronic and require immediate treatment.

Leukemia is not the most common cancer. According to the American Medical Statistics them sick each year only 25 out of a hundred thousand. Scientists have noticed that leukemia is most often in children (3-4 years) and older (60-69 years) people.

Causes

To make someone ill with leukemia, it is enough that one single hematopoietic cell mutated in cancer. She quickly starts to split and give rise to a clone of tumor cells. Tenacious rapidly dividing cancer cells gradually take the place of normal and develops leukemia.

Possible causes of mutations in the chromosomes of normal cells as follows:

  1. Exposure to ionizing radiation. So in Japan after the atomic bombings of patients with acute leukemia has increased several times. And the people who were at a distance of 1.5 km from the epicenter, sick up to 45 times more frequently than is outside of the zone.
  2. Carcinogens. These include some drugs (phenylbutazone, levomitsitin, cytostatics (anti)) and certain chemicals (pesticides, benzene petroleum distillates, which are part of varnishes and paints).
  3. Heredity. Basically it refers to a chronic leukemia, but in families where there were patients with acute leukemia, the risk of increases in3-4 times. It is believed that not inherited by the disease, and the tendency of the cells to mutate.
  4. Viruses. There is an assumption that there are specific types of viruses that by embedding into human DNA, can transform a normal cell into a malignant blood.
  5. The occurrence of leukemia, to some extent depends on a person's race, and geographic area of residence.

How to recognize?

Himself a diagnosis, "leukemia" is unlikely to succeed, but to pay attention to the change in state of health it is necessary. Keep in mind that sharp leukosis accompanied by high fever, weakness, dizziness, pain in the limbs, the development of severe bleeding. This disease can join various infectious complications, ulcerative stomatitis, necrotic angina. It may also be an enlarged lymph nodes, liver and spleen.

Chronic leukemia characterized by fatigue, weakness, poor appetite, weight loss. Increased spleen and liver.

At a late stage of the disease Infectious complications, a tendency to thrombosis.

Diagnostics

The diagnosis is oncologist on the basis of full blood count, blood chemistry. It is also necessary to carry out studies of the bone marrow (sternal puncture, biopsy).

Treatment

For the treatment of acute leukemia applies a combination of anticancer drugs and high doses of glucocorticoids. In some cases, possible bone marrow transplant. It is extremely important to support the event — the transfusion of blood components and the rapid treatment of infections join.

In chronic leukemia are currently applying the so-called anti-metabolites — drugs that inhibit the growth of malignant cells. In addition, radiation therapy is sometimes used, or administration of radioactive substances such as radioactive phosphorus.

The method of treatment, the doctor will decide depending forms of leukemia. Monitoring the condition of the patient is conducted on blood tests and a bone marrow examination. Treated for leukemia have for the rest of life.

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