Electronic warfare has long gone beyond the first radiofrequency spectrum allocated to it
Radio electronics is the basis sverhtehnologichny domestic product, industrial and defense purpose. Its share in final product prices close to 70 percent, and specifically electric components and the ability to determine the degree of perfection of these products. So makarom level electronics — consumer, Professor and special purpose — almost all the potential causes of the country in the modern world, its ability to ensure the formation sverhtehnologichny economy, increase the quality of life of the population and protect the public interest. Figuratively speaking, electric range becomes so critical resource of ownership and freedom to dispose of which will directly depend on the sustainable development and security of one or another country.
The fact that the electric range is already completely saturated with consumers and the intensity of its use will continue to grow, do not have to vary (see Table 1). Providing anyone and unrestricted access to the electric range of his nick to advance military, diplomatic and economic objectives and accordingly burdening or even complete prohibition of access users to the enemy is the essence of electronic warfare (EW). Modern electronic warfare — it is not just a form of martial and operational support, as it was before nedavneshnego time, and kind of warfare, a form of operational and strategic actions, the impact of the object which is the system of municipal and military control of the opposing party, its military and financial infrastructure. EW — part of information warfare (IS) and technology base of the 1st of the methods of warfare under the SOP — fighting combat control systems (BSBU).
The essence of the REB
In highly developed countries the concept of EW (Electronic warfare, EW) is more capacious, synthetic and with actually EW in its narrow awareness also includes electronic intelligence (SIGINT) as collateral type EW, a problem which — intelligence gathering disk imaging based on receiving and analyzing radiation in optical and radio electric range.
EW essentially involves impact of fire and electronic means to defeat radio-electronic means (RECs) control systems, communications, reconnaissance and targeting, as the enemy of life support in order to configuration properties circulating in their disk imaging or termination information exchange while protecting their systems from these types of impacts, including changes in the criterion (environment parameters) of propagation of electrical waves and streams of charged particles. Subject SIGINT — interception of communication channels between people and electronic means, as radar signals, hydro-acoustic and optical-electronic exchanges, other emitting devices, measurement of physical fields of different objects.
In accordance with the above content EW advanced military powers are (see Table 2) avionics defeat (Electronic attack, EA, before the term was used Electronic countermeasures, ECM), electronic countermeasures (Electronic protection, EP, before — Electronic counter-countermeasures , ECCM) and electronic and information management (Electronic warfare support, EWS, before — Electronic support measures, ESM).
Avionics defeat (REPr) is the totality of the activities and actions of troops (forces) on the effects on RES systems control of troops (forces), weapons and military equipment of the enemy by means of fire (radiation homing weapon), multifunction (electric gun) and information (active and passive electronic jamming) lesions also change criterion of propagation (reflection) of the electrical waves (radio-electronic masking).
Electronic countermeasures (REZ) is to reduce the efficiency (eliminating or weakening) the impact of funds on their opponents REPr RES, RES own protection from electrical and ionizing radiation arising from the use of nuclear weapons, involuntary (mutual) interference (providing electric comparability) and the technical reconnaissance assets.
RADIOELECTRONIC and information management (RIO) consists of periodic events and actions of troops (forces) to identify and control the functioning RES enemy, collecting, analyzing and summarizing data electronic environment, the right to organize and conduct electronic warfare.
EW content varies symmetric and asymmetric conflicts. In symmetric conflicts involving collision with the enemy, represented by the constant armed forces, EW is in full all 3 parts — REPr, REZ and RIO. With all this success BSBU EW provides first through RIO and its main element — SIGINT, including the diversity of means of interception of communication channels, reception and analysis of electrical radiation measuring physical fields of different objects. Another important element of RIO will alert about the dangers of its own forces introduction of guns enemy, why are different station warning receiver means of detection and fire control. REPr means are utilized in solving the problems of oppression of enemy air defenses (station active and passive jamming, also anti-radar missiles, carried by airplanes and helicopters), disrupt the enemy’s control system (complexes of active interference, homing on radiation sources and electric ammunition), the fight against it air attack weapons (equipment ground troops, ships and boats) in the ground, air or naval combat, especially in situations of dueling (radar, sonar and thermal traps) when moving on the ground, left or contested adversary (means oppression radio controlled improvised explosive devices ). REZ means being skompleksirovany with radars and communication systems and ensure their proper functioning in the criteria for electronic countermeasures opponent.
In asymmetric conflicts, involving a collision with irregular formations, EW conducted on a limited scale. With all this in rural areas, emphasis will be made on radio reconnaissance and suppression of radio-controlled explosive devices in populated Fri in addition, the — besides on the oppression of radio communication and wireless computer networks of the enemy, its isolation from the civilian population by blocking access to the broadcast media and social networks in cyberspace.
That in the future
What would the future EW spice? Man develops new areas and new frequency range of the electric and electronic warfare has long gone beyond the first radiofrequency spectrum allocated to it. Yet it was he who remains in the foreseeable future, the main area of operation of RES for various purposes. In this regard, the latest generation of electronic warfare systems will priemuschestvenno by radio. Complement their special acoustic (sonar) and opto-electronic systems. Distinctive features of these systems will be extended (minimum — 3 GHz, maximum — 10 GHz) spectra operating frequency and multiplicity of radiation, cognition (the presence of parts of artificial intelligence and expert logic integrated control subsystems) and adaptability (automatic adjustment of species and radiation power regardless of the devil, the amount and priority objectives suppressed) spaced apart from the possibility of focusing on electrical energy detected object in real time through leveraging network technology, modular hardware implementation of complex and open software architecture, inflated immunity from enemy electronic warfare. Technological basis for this is to use a high-precision oscillator, a heterogeneous architecture microprocessors, bilateral simultaneous exchange (STAR), electrical beam control in the radio and optical spectra, families nitride (GaN / InN / AlN) transistors and a number of other technologies innovatorskih.
Reality becomes electric gun (ECMO) as a low-frequency (it has already been used in a number of local conflicts since the 90s of the last century), and frequency, is available at the current time at the prototype (technology demonstrator). Element base RES is very sensitive to energy overload, and the flow of electrical energy is quite capable to burn highest density semiconductor junctions, one hundred percent or partially disrupt their normal functioning. Low-frequency EMI makes electrical pulse radiation at frequencies below 1 MHz frequency EMI affect microwave radiation — as pulsed or continuous. Low-frequency EMI affect the object through focus is wired infrastructure, including telephone bands, cables external power supply and removal of information. Frequency EMI directly seeps into electronics equipment object through its antenna system. Besides the impact on RES opponent frequency EMI can also affect the skin and internal organs. With all this as a result of their heating in the body likely chromosomal and genetic configuration, activation and deactivation of viruses, transformation immunological and behavioral responses.
The main technical means of obtaining massive electrical impulses that make up the base of low-frequency EMI is a generator with explosive magnetic field compression. Another possible low frequency source type of the highest level of magnetic energy can be magnetodynamic generator actuated using fuel rocket or explosive. When implementing frequency ECMO as a generator of massive microwave radiation can be used electrical appliances such as magnetrons and klystrons broadband operating in the millimeter spectrum gyrotron oscillators with a virtual cathode (vircators) using the centimeter range, free-electron lasers and plasma-beam broadband generators.
Means of delivering low-frequency EMI cruise missiles are planning bombs and artillery ammunition. Frequency ECMO because of the compactness of antenna systems can be installed on military equipment ground troops, aircraft and ships. Application of phased arrays allows sformirovyvaetsya several rays rapidly change their position and thus allow the simultaneous defeat several purposes.
In the optical spectrum of the electric range of the leading military powers of the world came to the creation tightly combat lasers — solid and free electrons. Laser systems for land, air and sea-based (solid-state lasers with power up to 600 kW range and acts up to 10 km), or only sea-based (free-electron lasers up to 1 MW range and acts up to 20 km) will be aimed at solving problems priemuschestvenno missile, air defense and antiboat other words to combat speed maneuvering objects. In addition, acts selectively affects lasers will allow to use them for oppression and optoelectronic devices of the enemy, detection, identification and exploration of a variety of purposes, including weapons of mass destruction carriers.
Design and creation of sverhtehnologichny EW and SIGINT — very specific and private sector with the highest market price of the entrance ticket: in the world are engaged in two 10-ka with small companies. Global South American favorites are Northrop Grumman, Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, ITT and British BAe Systems. Our homeland also comes into this exclusive club: a leading developer and manufacturer of electronic warfare and SIGINT — JSC «Concern Radio electronic technology.» Founded in 2009 under its own holding joined the auspices of 18 companies — research universities, design bureaus and serial factory specializing in the development of EW and SIGINT aircraft (manned and unmanned aerial vehicles), sea (surface ships and vessels) and ground (individual types of military equipment on a wheeled or tracked chassis based). As part of the State applets weapons for the period 2011-2020 (LG 2020), and against the background of military-technical cooperation with countries of concern zabugornom steadily increasing its market presence in the EW and SIGINT — yearly sales growth in the current decade is expected to reach 19 percent . In the current five-year plan in the Armed Forces of Russian Federation will go to 20 new products to the personal and collective protection from modern reconnaissance and precision weapons, including the system of cosmic-based and portable anti-aircraft missile systems. For the near future, which is held municipal tests and put into mass production complexes EW «Moscow-1», «Krasuha-2», «Krasuha-4», «Mercury» and several others.
Concern Enterprises conduct research and development work on the formation of type SIGINT and EW systems of the latest generation, including:
Design of ultra-wideband, with operating frequency range of 2-18 GHz mirror antenna systems with stabilized frequency radiation patterns (OCD «Sakhalin», the prime contractor — All-Russian Scientific Research Institute «Gradient»);
creation of spatially distributed aircraft EW systems, adaptive to the composition and functioning of radar control systems tool opponent with joint digital processing and the formation of coherent distributed interferers for UAVs 6th generation (OCD «Himalaya», the prime contractor — Kaluga Research Institute of Radio Engineering);
creation of EW with ultra-wideband (two to three octaves) transceiver modules and solid-state broadband digital processing of radio signals based on multipath (more than 4 rays immediately generated) antenna arrays for decimeter (1-6 GHz), centimeter (6-18 GHz) and millimeter (32-40 GHz) wavelength ranges for aircraft 5th generation, including PAK FA, Su-35S (OCD «Ricochet» and «Rank», the prime contractor — KRRTI);
introduction of industrial technology for unified number receiving microwave devices with advanced (60 dB and above) the dynamic range of the received signals, providing bespropuskovy reception with the highest probability of receiving and accurate determination of the characteristics of the received signals in the time limit criteria premeditated operation and configuration of the radiation characteristics RES opponent ( OCD «Piston», the prime contractor — Taganrog Research Institute of Communications);
creation of the basic hardware and software modules for operational monitoring and determining the radio with a complex signal-code design (OCD «Stapel» prime contractor — Design Bureau Spectrum Monitoring control systems, navigation and communication);
design and manufacture of high-precision equipment for digital RTR providing including the possibility of introducing highly accurate instruments for radiation sources (OCD «Rynda», the prime contractor — Design Bureau Spectrum Monitoring control systems, navigation and communication);
creation of spatially distributed radar systems secretive air and ground targets based on active phased array radar and passive systems in the meter and decameter spectra (OCD «bullet», «Perturbation-1», «Duga-1», «Leader-SV», head Artist — Design Bureau Spectrum Monitoring control systems, navigation and communication).
Domestic and foreign military in the idea of a single worldview relatively limited capacity and incomprehensible need forthcoming increase in hell fire weapons using kinetic energy. In the foreseeable future quality leap in building capacities of the Armed Forces is likely due to the upcoming intellectualization control systems, communications, reconnaissance and targeting, as introducing methods of struggle, using unconventional methods first electric effect on the enemy.
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