70 years ago, November 19, 1942, with a strong artillery barrage at Stalingrad began a counteroffensive Russian troops. On the fifth day, November 23, part of the 4th Mechanized Corps of the Stalingrad Front teamed up with the 26th Panzer Corps of the Southwestern Front in populated Fri Russian (East of Kalach). Our troops encirclement of German group, storming Stalingrad.
In the "pot" were 22 divisions and more than 160 individual parts of the 6th Field and 4th Panzer German armies — more than 300 thousand people. Such a large-scale operation to encircle Russian command had never been done before.
Stalingrad survived! Destroyed to the ground, almost one hundred percent of the burned — but persevered. As it is not many who believed and enemies, and even in the midst of our allies. Not the case in August 1942, came to Moscow, Churchill personally to make sure you can resist the Red Army.
Marshal of the Russian Union Vasily Chuikov. 1975.
As, in truth, it was possible to defend the city on the Volga River, which became the main link in the confrontation with the Wehrmacht in 1942, could tell almost all the famous commander of the 62nd Army, General (later Marshal of the Russian Union) Chuikov. But that does not vyznat Churchill, now we know.
Chuikov led the army on September 12. To this day or under the pressure of superior forces of the enemy forces withdrew to its limit, which took place less than 10 kilometers away from the city's outskirts. The defending northern and central parts of Stalingrad 62th also was cut off from the other forces of the front. Defend Stalingrad at any cost — the idea commander lived, lived his subordinates from fighter to a general.
"I like the last commander of the 62nd Army … — read in a book of memoirs of Marshal — declare with all responsibility that Stalingrad could be taken by the adversary only under one condition: if all before the 1st fighter could have been killed. None of the defenders of Stalingrad was not gone from the right bank to the left. We made a pledge party and the people, "Stand to Death!" From this oath we could free up only destruction. These things belief was dictated not only the understanding of the strategic environment and the need to keep city. It was a commandment of the heart. It reflected the change in the minds of Russian fighter that took place in our army to the walls of Stalingrad: recede enough! ".
Army Chief of Staff had already been appointed Gen. NI Krylov (also a future Marshal). Has developed rapidly-working, well-run duo 2-professional military leaders, who have been to the same front-line friends.
The command of the 62nd Army (right to left): Commander of the Army Lieutenant General Chuikov, a member of the Military Council, Major General KA Gurov and Chief of Staff, Major-General Nikolai Krylov.
Marshal of the Russian Union of Chuikova Krylov responded as a man with a hot heart and a steel will. He quickly showed his nature commander, "thinking broadly and boldly, alien to their own decisions and actions of some templates, tirelessly seeking to understand more precisely how to defeat the enemy in these specific criteria. Do I need to explain — summed Krylov — how important are these properties commander in Stalingrad? '.
The commander was well aware that in the overwhelming superiority of the enemy in manpower and technology can only stand in this case to grope his feeble hand. And with the support of Chuikov Krylova, other officers and generals of the army is unable to control. Studying the Germans in a combat situation, he came to the conclusion that the basis of all the tactical and operational plans of the enemy — it's the deepest wedges converging in depth at one point. Having an advantage in the air, as the tanks, the invaders comparable simply broke through our defenses, to drive a wedge, making visibility environment and that our troops were forced to retreat. But it was quite a stubborn defense or counter-attack to suspend or break one of the wedges, as the second is hung, looking for support.
The strategy kept the enemy template. Infantry briskly walked into coming only when the tanks were already on their target. A tank crew usually went to the coming only when the head of the Russian troops hung a German aircraft. It was enough to break this order, as the advent of the Nazis slowed. They did not suffer a close fight, underlain at our counter and even reverse the departed.
Protracted street battles in the criteria allow continuous destruction dramatically reduce, if not completely negate many of the advantages of the enemy. And Chuykov boldly goes on the use of new tactics. To reduce the effects of enemy aircraft, he gave the order to greatly reduce the width of the neutral zone, practically throw grenades to bring together front line of defense with the enemy. The enemy, for fear of hitting their own troops, really became weaker to use air strikes.
In urban combat an indispensable role played particularly keen-eyed direction. Vasily tremendous attention to the development of the army sniper movement. Artists such well-aimed fire, as Vasily Zaitsev, Viktor Medvedev, Anatoly Chekhov, killing many hundreds of invaders.
Knocked down in the center of the destroyed Stalingrad German fighter Me-109. 1942.
Chuykov claimed to defend very active, constantly harass the enemy counterattacks. Combat experience has shown that these puzzles to successfully manage small units that penetrate into the depth of the enemy defense in the gaps between the supporting Fri By order of the commander of the assault groups were formed with up to 50 men, they were attached to two or three guns, on the ability of the tanks. The personnel of the armed with machine guns, hand grenades. These groups cut one tank destroyers, scouts, snipers. To ensure a surprise attack often carried out without the preparatory fire raid. This active defense permitted to not only defend the position occupied, and keep many of the major facilities under its control, inflicting heavy losses the Germans. Previously, under the words "active defense"Assumed to counter battalions, regiments, now the counter were single or small groups. They were kept in suspense the whole shelf, surprise attacks from the flanks and rear of the enemy exhausted nerves, kicked with lucrative positions in the one or the other place.
Striking example of such actions — the defense o
f the famous "Pavlov's House." Back in September, a group led by Sgt JF Pavlov captured in the center of the house and detained him a hero to the end of fighting. Those were the days when it occurred to the 2-infantry battalions supported by tanks. The Germans considered the house disguised fortress with countless garrison, while Pavlov was only 10-12 fighters. If the day the Nazis managed to break into the basement of the house, here NIGHT MODE flying grenades, and the approach of new forces was cut off by fire gunners who remained in ambush. For 59 days the invaders had lost in the battle for Pavlov's House as much as not lost in the capture of Paris.
Artillery preparation counteroffensive at Stalingrad, November 19, 1942.
And in the use of artillery Chuykov boldly departed from the template. Taking into account that the depth of the defense at once does not exceed a few kilometers, he insisted, that artillery units arriving with their divisions to strengthen the 62-th army, were forwarded to the troops, along with the city, and remained on the left bank of the Volga. Hence, the heavyweight division and army artillery fire could lead effective without incurring the threat of being rapidly destroyed. Keeping in combat formations observers and spotters, each division commander, brigade, regiment has always had the opportunity to call their own artillery fire. And the commander of the army artillery Gen. NM Pozharsky, with his own hand, at the right time could concentrate fire beyond the Volga all the artillery batteries army on a marked square.
From just such unconventional solutions, backed by the courage and fortitude of soldiers and commanders, and evolved base for successful solving the main task — to defend Stalingrad. The commander of the 6th German Army F. Paulus threw a battle thousands of fighter aircraft and artillery to destroy the base city, but to break the defense of the town did not succeed.
It's morning, November 19, 1942. The Military Council of the 62nd Army knew about the beginning of a decisive counter-offensive of the Red Army on the flanks of the hostile factions, but the attacks of the Germans in the town lasted as if nothing happened. The only difference was that the city nothing appears 1st enemy aircraft. But on the night of November 21 was the beginning of the redeployment noticeable enemy armored units. It was a clear sign that the Nazis is no longer up to the confrontation with the intercessors town. Stabbing, November 24 troops 62 th Army, supported by the 66th Army Zhadov reunited with the mainland.
"Chuikov could be harsh, and zapalchiv, but one fact is not the one who is always relaxed. From our first meeting on Mamaev Hill, I thought that I was fortunate enough to be in Stalingrad, Chief of Staff to Commander itself "- summed up his outlook on Chuikova NI Krylov.