17.04.11. TODAY. UA.Ne Odessa Regional Council recently approved — the first time since 1982! — "Red Book" of the region (the same Ukrainian document was adopted in 2009, the year). The most important event is, however, for some reason there are not seen the general public.
"Today" has tried to correct spelling, finding out what the beast and what vegetation we now on the verge of extinction, and who, on the contrary, so multiplied in recent years, that it had to be excluded from the Red Book.
HOW ARE. One of the authors of the list, Doctor of Biological Sciences Vladimir Stoylovsky said: work on any Red Book — the process is extremely time consuming. Scientists attending the habitat potential "Red Book", collecting a wealth of information. Poll hunters, local naturalists conduct their own observations. To bring it into a book form, you need to prove that the number of its representatives was strongly reduced. And you have to wander the woods for months, fields and swamps, counting nests of some Lesser White-fronted Goose.
The updated list includes 633 species — almost one and a half times more than in the previous version. "But do not do it out of the tragedy — said Professor Stoylovsky. — First of all, not all listed as plants and animals or the day after tomorrow necessarily perish. In the book there are different categories: rare, vulnerable, endangered and poorly understood, they are also invaluable. Undervalued — are those for which we have no information on the number of population, so just in case it is better to take them under protection. Vulnerable — now there are quite a lot, but in a few years may be less. Rare — the population is constant, but not numerous. Still I must say, that is not always reduce the number of animals due to the influence of man and does not necessarily mean the death of her close. Sometimes these processes occur in waves — reducing the number followed by an increase, and so on. "
Therefore, according to the expert, the drafters of the regional Red Book, this time came up with maximum caution to his task: "In the 1980s, for example, we reinsured and to include the most of the birds. Conservation status were even those species that did not at that time threatened and not threatened now. And then we came to own a rake. Engaged in banding birds Tiligul — environmental inspectors arrived and we were fined for catching Red Book species. "
SWAN saved. So, who came and who left the Red Book Odeschiny? We only list known to the public. Let's start with the birds. Recognize the vulnerability of the most common, known since childhood pictures and cartoons gray duck, which breeds on lakes and marshes. She suffers from predators and human interference. Duck shoot poachers and arsonists smoother destroy its habitat. Also, in the "red" list includes short-eared owl, goose-fronted goose (the smallest of the geese) and once very common, for example, Kuyal'nitskogo estuary, the beautiful avocet (with a characteristic curved beak up).
Protection "was assigned" to the white-eyed divers, black kite, white-tailed eagles, gray crane, eagle, and bustards. However, according to Stoylovskogo excluded the mute swan: white beauties in the region today are many times more than thirty years ago. And it's not so good, because the swan — a bird is very aggressive. Mute tend to expel from its territory of other birds, and may lash out at people. But especially goes for nuts ducks …
"Do not we have included in the list, and pelican, although it is in the Red Book of Ukraine, — says professor Stoylovsky. — The fact is that the Danube, where his summer nesting grounds, the population had reached over the past 5-7 years, several thousand individuals. If we consider that for every pelican eats several kilograms of fish, then put him under guard, at least, unwise. "
The situation is similar with other fans eat fish — small cormorant. In the Danube floodplains nest half of the European population, with an enviable appetite absorbing fisheries river. However, due to the sharp reduction in the number of cormorants around the world, after much debate, it was decided to leave the list.
From "nekrasnoknizhnyh" particularly added to the number of rooks, and exploding. They are not considered in our hunting, they have few natural enemies, but the food supply enormous — badly harvested fields where there is a lot of seeds, waste and so on. But it's probably for the best, because the rook destroys many pests.
New insects in the list is almost absent, with which, however, did not agree to entomologists, "I would have them 20-30 more species of native tossed — said" Today "connoisseur insects Victor pub. — Even cockroaches have red in the list include — he's almost completely disappeared from our apartments. "
We turn to mammals. Scientists are included in the list of protected all four common species we bats. "Bats eat insects, and they are now heavily hunted, often not certified insecticides. That shrinking population ", — says ecologist Ivan Rusev. More on the brink of destruction — once ubiquitous speckled ground squirrel, gray hamsters, plain and Odessa. Completely disappeared rabbit, ten years ago in abundance between vodivshiysya Kuyalnik Khadzhibey and estuaries.
The red book left Badger, who, as a valuable trophy fishing (it is fat in the way people from tuberculosis, and the meat is edible), managed to regain his strength. Were not included, despite the requirements of environmental organizations, the list gray wolves. "Wolves are now in the Odessa area has increased, — says Stoylovsky. — Wolf's population grew up strongly even in the vicinity of Odessa — Kominternovsky area. "
No problems with the wild boars. And if we will not miss them, there's always … immigrants from neighboring Romania. "Romanian pigs regularly violate the border, swimming across the Danube. And once large herds. I once drove hunters to look at it — just 80 animals, one after another, like soldiers, crossed the river first, went to the beach and a narrow tropinochkoy went about his business. And they say that there are crowds of up to 300 at a time! They are attracted by our fields, where you can find food, "- said Professor Vladimir Stoylovsky.
Many places in the Red Book of the area occupied by amphibians and reptiles. Thus, under threat recently opened Danube newt, common frog and toad. Virtually disappeared steppe and steppe vipers and snakes doctor. Of aquatic animals in the list of protected were all Black Sea dolphins, sturgeon, sturgeon, common carp and gold, the Black Sea and Danube salmon, walleye, 5 species of gobies.
The rare plants added ordinary feather. Botanists say that it's a reduction in size of the wild steppes (due to plowing). Also on the list — the water fern, ephedra, Bessarabia cloves, grapes and other forest.
Wrote on order? The extent to which an objective and all-Ukrainian Odessa Red books reflect reality, are ongoing discussions. Many experts point out exceptions to the invalidity of the documents of some species. For example, the same mute swan. "Swan now more than ever, there is little in the Odessa region. The fact that it increases the soaring population, speak only hunters who itching to shoot the bird, "- said Ivan Rusev. And pelicans, in his opinion, are too vulnerable to be ignored in the security list, "Why are they excluded from Odessa books, not very clear" — outraged specialist. A lot of questions arise ecologist about the disappearance of animals from the Red Badger and European marsh turtle included in the Red Book. Hunting for turtles — quite a profitable business in our area. They caught hundreds, then sending for sale, including in Europe. Demand for the turtle, which is mere pittance — a few dollars apiece — form the pet lovers and … restaurants.
Hunter with almost 30 years experience Nikolay Averchenko sure that these "mistakes" are not accidental: "It is clear that the composition of the Red Book are also subject to corrupt influences, like everything else in this country. Wanted to some people's deputies to hunt a rare — and he lobbied for the right change. "
However, the inclusion of a living being in the Red Book — is not a guarantee of its salvation. Quite the contrary, for the conservation status raises prices on the black market. For example, bottlenose dolphin today for less than $ 60-70 thousand is not for sale. Statutory penalty is not as severe. Under the Criminal Code, for the murder of a Red Animal shines maximum penalty — up to 1,700 hryvnia … In practice, however, are awarded to smaller amounts.