At the end of the last century in the United States to upgrade tactical aircraft were launched programs from the creation of the 2-planes. Level pledged technologies allow talk about the brand-new, fifth-generation fighters. They are in the 21st century should be the cornerstones of the U.S. Air Force. These two cars had to supplement each other in air operations, fulfilling its every function. According programmke ATF (Advanced Tactical Fighter — advanced tactical fighter) plane was created, to a greater extent and for air combat superiority in the air. According programmke JSF (Joint Strike Fighter — a single strike fighter) — aircraft for attacks on ground targets. It must be said, the principle was fully correct, since "the versatile breed of pilots" have not yet moved out, and the pilots of modern aviation as before are either "bomber" or "extermination" specialization. Prototype perfectly controlled both puzzles can only unique pilots. Roughly the same can be said about the planes: features dictate the properties of the tasks and of the aircraft. But the two utilities that in the process of self-realization endured significant changes in the direction of greater flexibility. As a result, the program gave the ATF F-22 Raptor and the JSF — F-35.
The F-22 was the first aircraft to have fulfilled the requirements of the "fifth generation", chief among them the following: low visibility (in the radar and infrared spectra), good flying characteristics from its predecessors ("maneuverability" and the supersonic speed regime besforsazhny engines), a perfect complex avionics equipment (avionics) and weapons. Notwithstanding any criticism (including exorbitant price, do not allow the aircraft mass) — Raptor meet these requirements, and is one of the best air combat fighter. As for the function of attacking ground targets, it appeared in its task of early enough to step adjustment of the project, as additional capacity. The fact that these tasks were not major, has led to a rather modest set of tools against ground targets: two 450-pound bombs GBU-32 JDAM bombs or eight GBU-39, weighing 113 kg. Arrange a serious set of tools "air-to-surface" of the small size of the internal weapons bays, intended initially for missiles "air-to-air." A suspension on external sites negates the advantages — deprives the plane low radar signature and high maneuverability characteristics.
Meanwhile, with the passage of time, the shock features were considered for the F-22 key as the South American Air Force took part in the fighting with the enemy, which actually had its aircraft. With the Russian Union of disaster seemed that Raptor will not see in the sky a worthy opponent. And the air was a fighter bomber with a weak powers of the earth, and strong, but useless in reality capabilities against aerial targets. But a change in the balance of power and led to another fascinating fact — the main enemy aircraft was not another plane, and air defense systems, major advances in the development of which belong to us. Here a small visibility and the ability of avionics, of course, just by the way. But the ability of Raptor in action against enemy air defense, came up against the fact that the aircraft is not designed for it at the beginning. For example, the absence in the arsenal of anti-radar missiles AGM-88 HARM, offset by the perfection of complex airborne reconnaissance. But to defeat air defense facilities, the Raptor will have to rely on corrected bombs, which have the shortest range. In other words, he will have to approach closer to the enemy's air defenses, instead of launching a rocket from a distance of 100 km. For all this, as we all remember, specifically at the time of the valves opening weapon bay, fell under the hand of a 2-* "stealth» F-117 shot down in the skies of Yugoslavia ceased at this point to be "invisible." And all the statistics from the actual combat says that most of the losses have not a step or goal-seeking rapprochement with her, but on the way out of the attack. From this point of view, the work of "invisible" in the near zone defense looks suicidal, despite the excellence of avionics and low visibility. And the Raptor is still working on the ground in an area already cleared of air defense system, with a limited set of tools. But this task can cope and even more ordinary cars. So Makarov, F-22 fighter air combat is what was planned initially. A shock puzzles and break / liquidation defense should mostly fall on some other machine.
Well, after all, to attack functions as a plane created by programmke JSF. But, and this programm endured many configurations, compared with the initial plan. In-1's, almost immediately to the role it hooked partner countries the U.S., which lusted to get a true functional plane in the criteria for a ban on the export of the F-22. In-2, do Americans want to change a modern machine virtually all types of self-sufficient motley fleet (F-15, F-16 and A-10 — in the Air Force; F-18 and EA-6 "Prauler" — in the Navy; AV-8 "Harrier" — in ILC). As a result, the F-35 of all three versions (for three customers — Air Force, Navy and USMC) came next tactical objectives: attacks on ground targets, gaining advantages in the air and providing air support for the specific troops. Because of the low-profile attack aircraft, he began to transform into a universal plane, which was due to become a fighter too. With all of this in a legacy of its own shock specialization F-35 was limited maneuvering ability and flying characteristics that do not allow us to consider its plane fifth generation, and only so called "4 +". We'll see how the F-35 should be managed with their new puzzles.
Let's start with the support of the troops. In this function the Commission makes the Harrier, the main advantage of which can be considered a vertical landing. By shortcomings include small combat radius and not a good security (which is a very important for a stormtrooper). But the range of weapons Harrier is very diverse: svobodnopadayuschih rockets and bombs, cluster bombs, guided missiles "air-to-surface» AGM-65 "Maverick", corrected bombs and even rockets "air-to-air" close combat AIM-9. The Navy F-18 — faster versatile aircraft that apart from the main purpose (bomber and ground attack aircraft) has a good ability to dogfight and attack ships. In the Air Force was untainted by the A-10 attack aircraft designed specifically to support the troops on the battlefield, who had not counting the respective task of arms, good security.
F-35 — the car is quite difficult and expensive. As well as the F-22, which has advanced and complicated set of avionics, low visibility, as well as, information-control field cab greatly facilitates the work of the pilot. However, the development of low visibility and limited in size (the requirement of the Navy, the Commission and foreign customers), not allowed to make a plane secured neither constructive nor with armor. Besides, F-35 — The plane, "the tight layout," in other words, a huge amount of complex systems are packaged in a rather modest dimensions, which further increases the vulnerability of even lung lesions. A ground attack should work on the front edge of a low-altitude, long time, being in the battle zone and making for one flight on several visits to different goals. Then he will be fired anti-aircraft missiles close combat and anti-aircraft artillery, for which the development of "stealth" is not an obstacle, as the
fire is on purpose or specifically observed in the visible spectrum, with optical guidance. For example, the Russian ZRPK "Tunguska" and "Shell" are able to hit targets in the passive mode, the radar, auto-capture, support and guidance on the television optical channel (capture optically contrasting goals against the sky or walk against the horizon / terrain if target is at low altitude). Modern Western MANPADS are not equipped infrared homing, and operate in automatic mode with a laser or radio command guidance.
The range of weapons F-35 although more extensive than the Raptor, but it is not so much to support the troops on the battlefield, but for strike missions that require non-long stay in the attacking zone, which is understandable, taking into account the vulnerability of the machine. Weapons bays F-35A and F-35C can hold more correctable and svobodnopadayuschih bombs (two on the 900-pound, or four 450-pound or more of the lungs). In F-35B they have almost twice the smallest capacity. In general, the head suspension for ground attack weapons (anti-tank missiles and unguided) is likely to external sites that just as in the case of the F-22 makes the aircraft radio-and aggravates the flying characteristics, thereby undermining its advantage. With all of this aircraft survivability is not an assault, and use of, for example, anti-helicopter missiles "Brimstone" (in the UK version) supersonic car, it is likely only in a sterile test-range criteria.
To strike operations by early explored targets F-35 has a larger arsenal than the F-22. Ability to survive without a long stay in a zone defense actions, going to advance the goal of the calculated rates and heights, and trying to avoid defeat after bomb release, about like the Raptor. Here expensive avionics and technology "stealth" fully justified. But again, not weapons bays created for the "weapons of longish arms," and means the same F-15, F-16 and F-18, do not speak the low signature, but can operate with greater range, will address the same tasks with the least risk. Outside the same suspension actually equalizes the ability of the F-35 and more than a cheap machine of the previous generation. The development of high-precision weapons, more aircraft makes only a platform for delivery. And internal suspension only 2-tons of ammunition small size limits the use of the F-35 in the criteria for a strong defense but especially necessary point goals. With all of this, anti-air defense is not a lot of predictable or fall on the shoulders of other means (for example, the stealth drone strike, which so far only designed, and efficiency is the next generation of anti-air defense, is still an open question).
But maybe, F-35 is able to change the real fighter in a dogfight? After all, his complex avionics and weapon "air-air" according to his ability not inferior to the F-22. But, it is very inferior to the Raptor for flight features, which does not allow to consider it, as stated above, vsepolnotsennym fighter fifth generation. It turned out that in a dogfight, the perfection of the avionics and low visibility are not able to change them. In August 2008, Hawaii was simulated air combat F-35 with Russian engines (who own characteristics, some like the Su-30). On the virtual air war attended the Australians as customers F-35. Naturally, the results of the simulation are closed, and the Americans have repeatedly denied the failure of the F-35. Yet, the results led to the freezing of the purchase of these aircraft by Australia and knowledgeable with the report of the Liberal Party member Dennis Jensen, without disclosing details, said the "Dry" beat the F-35, as the penguins! "In general, the same result would have completely open exercises Australia and Malaysia, in which the Malaysian Su-30 won the Australian F-18, all 32 of dueling air battles, and four out of five fights "two for one". Maybe the chances of F-35 vs. Su-30 is slightly higher than that of non-the-art equipment of Australian aircraft, which led only to freeze, but not canceling the purchase. Yet, it is clear that the F-35 is not able to excel in a dogfight even fourth-generation aircraft, despite the perfection of aircraft systems and low visibility.
Thus, F-35 as well as the F-22 remains at the recess to which the planned initially. These aircraft systems can complement each other in the air operation where surgical strikes on the ground F-35, cover themselves from enemy aircraft F-22. With all of this for both machines the greatest danger will be of air defense systems, which beat both aircraft vsepolnotsenno can not. Realizing this, the Americans launch the newest program from the development of the universal rocket NGM. It is created on the basis of rockets "air-to-air" medium-range AIM-120 AMRAAM, which is the basis of anti-aircraft weapons F-22 and F-35. Brand new rocket must have a tremendous than AMRAAM range and opportunity introduction of anti-air defense radar stations, with all this, keeping overall dimensions (in order to fit in the weapons bays of both aircraft). Maybe her appearance will change once the current position. However, if the developers ("Lockheed" and "Raytheon" on a competitive basis) will meet the requirement of universality, without losing the efficiency of each of the tasks and maintaining the same size. Oh, and if the means of defense will not develop, and even a little degraded, compared with the current capacity.
At the moment, the Americans themselves admit that their fleet was not in a situation similar today, with the post-war history. The average age of the fleet is about 25 years. In the foreseeable future to be written off a huge number of combat aircraft for various purposes. With all of this substitution is not their new near-term, since the creation of the F-22 dropped and the F-35 is not yet a "brought to mind" machine, also causing a lot of criticism. The substitution of the many types of aircraft on the F-35, even if it happens in optimistic terms and with a good pace, not the present, as its functionality is questionable. In most situations will be the heavy Navy and USMC. In the case of complete substitution of naval aviation only on the F-35 fleet will be deprived of the previous shock abilities (especially in naval operations against enemy forces). And since all the programs from deck fighters gain advantages in the air collapsed with the hope of F-35 — will weaken and Air component of the U.S. aircraft carrier battle groups. The Marine Corps has already lost hope for new machines and extends the life of the Harriers (the creation of which discontinued) 2030, having bought the British 72 decommissioned aircraft for spare parts for analysis. Out of the current situation, the Americans will be carrying out major repairs and upgrading the existing fleet, of course, wherever it may be, and perhaps purchasing new machines fourth generation.
Against this background, totally look good prospects of other countries in developing their own programs from military aviation. U.S. partners in the North Atlantic alliance, which do not have hope for the South American F-35, perhaps the owners will be completely modern and capable aircraft fleet, even without the "fifth generation". Thus France, which has become the locomotive of the air operation in the skies of Libya, was the owner of his own fighter of "4 +" Rafale, which martial abilities is at least as F-35. Proprietary programs from fighter fifth generation develop Japan, China, South Korea together, and Indonesia, as our homeland, along with India. These applets started later than the American, South American experience and take into account the errors, the latest technical achievements.
Our homeland, like the United States, has a large fleet of aircraft with a close to the limit for a period of operation. His readiness is also supported overhaul and modernization.
Americans still teetering on the brink of making a decision: either to continue to pull the program from the F-35, or a return to an old orders for new aircraft designs, or combine both solutions. The latter two options compromising the F-35 in the outer market, and in the event of failure of the procurement partners, makes the cost of a new aircraft excessive and useless. Unlike the Yankees, we have re-launched the program from the Air Force for aircraft generation "4 +", which is at least not inferior to the combat abilities of F-35 (Su-34, Su-30cm, Su-35 and updated versions of the MiG-29 ). The program is a fighter fifth-generation PAK FA has a number of advantages over the U.S..
Our latest generation of aircraft initially understood as the aviation system, consisting actually of the plane and of its weapons and avionics, which, depending on the objectives, will dictate the type and properties of the machine. Took place, along with South American, almost similar in purpose programs from IFIs (functional fighter) and PRL (light frontline fighter) does not have a real embodiment of the disaster Russian Union. First, the 2000s, it was decided to resume work. For all this, when it became clear that the new girl should become a universal machine for use, and not unsullied interceptor or attack aircraft — the previous projects did not stretch to the new requirements, and headed to the basket.
On the main characteristics of the PAK FA is not inferior to the Raptor.
Radar visibility is usually calculated as the ESR (effective surface scattering reflected from the plane of the electric energy radiation) and is expressed in square meters, taking as an ideal reflection of the "ideal sphere", which has the same traits of reflection, as the object of study, there will be a measure of the cross-sectional area of the sphere . If the Su-27 ESR will be about 12-13 meters, then the PAK-FA, this value is 0.3-0.4 meters, which was similar to the F-22. Here, it should be mentioned that in the real criteria for the detection of radar equipment is very depending on the angle of radiation of wavelengths and its configuration in the process of irradiation. In general, Russian air defense detection and airborne radar aircraft, machine, made "stealth technology" is not difficult with the discovery. More useful, "reflecting the complex form of" intense maneuvering aircraft will be to thwart rocket attack that has radar homing. In general, and then Russian weapon is not the first day preparing for a meeting with the "invisible". So the "invisibility" is not a huge advantage, whereas Western developers, considering the technology of "stealth" own prerogative, time was given to the nearest combat it is not enough attention.
Airborne radar system PAK FA — N036 consists of antennas with active phased array (AESA), which are available in different elements of the glider (in the nose cone, a leading edge slats, socks wings on the sides) can work in several spectra, provide practically radial view. This solution is similar to that used on the raptors. Properties of the complex is not known, but the ability of Russian radars, which are used for aircraft of past generations are comparable with South American or surpass them. Just as the raptors, the complex PAK FA can operate in passive mode, reconnaissance purposes without the radio-emitting its own radiation, as well as determining the coordinates of targets from the reflected signal from other sources that will guide the interaction with the PAK FA on the battlefield. Also in the complex avionics systems included electronic countermeasures. The complex avionics complements optoelectronic integrated system (OEIS) — 101KS product. It consists of a defensive system (KS 101-0), which provides resistance to means of destruction that uses an infrared guidance; vserakursny review system in the UV range (101 KC-Y) which exhibits the work of jet and rocket engines; quantum (laser) radar system (101 CS-B), which reveals the objectives and determining their coordinates in the optical spectrum, multi-channel optical targeting system (101 KC-H), which provides the use of tools (priemuschestvenno ground targets). All elements of a complex avionics integrated among themselves and with external sources, the complex has a high processing power and superior automation, made one hundred percent on Russian electronic components, including the computational part.
PAK FA flying characteristics superior to the F-22. Although available in this step by the South American engines are inferior traction, even they allow the PAK FA have sufficient thrust and provide supersonic cruising speed besforsazhny mode. Ability to maneuver the aircraft superior to the Raptor. Here played a role not very successful design F-22, which is dictated by the requirements of the technology "stealth": wing has the highest inductance, its flat profiles have bad bearing characteristics that can not be financed by other aerodynamic solutions. The engines are placed close to each other, which is made in order to in front of the projection of compressor blades on the engines not cure radar (air channel located on the curved edges of the fuselage vastly vozduhopoglotiteley). Together with the need to accommodate four internal weapons bays, it made oversize fuselage near the center-. In the PAK FA engines are spaced from the longitudinal axis of the aircraft, allowing carriers to give the whole structure characteristics, and increment "shoulder" traction when maneuvering. In addition, it is possible to make a large central compartment can accommodate cannon armament, Raptor hard to reach because of the size of compartments. A cover for compressor engines in the gondola with respect to the direct air path, use the original decision — radar-blocker. This device is made of composite material having a curved blade which permit air flow, but close to the direct illumination radar compressor itself. From the standpoint of aerodynamics, this structure is not very common, since the curved radar blocker air streams must be synchronized with the operation of the motor and does not have perturbation and seals, preventing its operation in various modes. But the gain in this case is not only in the field of radar signature, and in the length of the air path is smaller, the smaller the "empty" and, accordingly, the amount of design, dimensions and weight. Thanks to all of these decisions, the PAK FA has the best turn rate than the Raptor, the best maneuverability in the vertical and horizontal plane, as at supersonic speed and at low speeds. In addition, the engines are spaced increasing aircraft survivability, and the possibility of flying with failure or defeat the 1st of the engines, provided their location relative to the axis of symmetry of the aircraft as bukovkoy «V», on the thrust vector will be held near the center of mass of the aircraft.
In conclusion, it should be noted the best armament Russian cars. His versatility and abundance, can be used as the PAK FA fighter or strike aircraft, choosing at least some of the selected tasks befitting range of weapons and pilots, without harm abilities.
Arsenal of air combat will include new short-range missiles (presumably K-MD or product "300" MCB "Vympel"), which will be equipped with a homing matrix to determine the target (!), Inflated twice range of capture, and automatic adjustment of avionics aircraft in flight, which is needed in case of failure of capture, run out of sight of the target (shooting "behind"), or change the priority goal. It is also a means of anti-aircraft defense. Together with her will and more than usual rocket, modernization of the P-73, demonstrated at the last MAKS as RVV-MD (this is — the product "760" of the same "Vympel"). For it is not likely option only with optical homing head, and with radar 9B-1103M diameter of 150 mm, the developmen
t of MRI, "Agate". Until now, the creation of an active RGSN for short-range missiles there were impracticable at the technical level as well as its dimensions must be comparable to the optical head. Yet, it failed to Russian designers.
On the medium-range (about 100 km — for the Yankees is already a big range) will be brand-new generation of RVV-AE (R-77) — RVV-SD (K-77m or product "180"). It has the latest multi-mode active-passive homing, which will allow to direct the missile to the sources of noise and emitting radar, flat handlebars instead of the lattice, for ease of placement of weapons in the compartment (agility saved thanks to gas-dynamic control) and also the adjustment of avionics. At long range (up to 200 km.), There are even a few different options. This HAEDAT (a modernized version of the P-37, which in turn — the development of the P-33 — "the main fire," the MiG-31), and RVV-PD with a ramjet engine, and KC-172, developed by NPO " Innovator. "
Arsenal to attack functions, more impressive. Guided aerial bombs (KAB) is common to us calibers 500 and 1500 kg, supplemented by the latest, caliber 250 kg. Targeting different versions: inertial, satellite, television, thermal, laser, passive radar, as well as options combined. In fact, the same options are provided for guidance latest short-range missiles (up to 40 km), the X-38. Often demonstrated at trade shows anti-radiation missile X-58USHKE — is well-proven version of the X-58, wherein the modern seeker, increased to 250-km range and start folding handlebars for placement in the weapons bay. Back in 1992, adopted an antiship version of this missile, wherein the flight path, and warhead seeker. One can imagine that for the PAK FA is and that of her choice. Information on a brand new weapon far more PAK-FA is not open. In general, it can use virtually all of the currently available aircraft weapon systems, at least from the outside suspension components which is clearly visible even on the test machines (nacelles under the wings and engines). For example, Indians are involved in the project reported to be preparing to lightweight 2-ton version of the anti-ship missile "BrahMos" (the title of the Russian version — "Onyx", export to third countries — "Yakhont"), especially for placing on the Indian version of the PAK FA .
At the moment passes tests third car, which is already installed part of the avionics (ie, radar). In the fourth PAK FA, which will take off this year, will be tested some weapons. At the beginning stage of the assembly has two sides, in general, their appearance can be changed by passing the results of the tests.