Park Chung-hee (previously in Russian his name written Park Chung-hee) was born November 14, 1917 in the town of Seongsan in southeastern Korea in a poor family with many children. At that time, the Korean peninsula was colonized land of the rising sun, and not enough of Koreans who could really count on the highest position. Despite the paucity of funds from relatives, Park showed a good opportunity. In 1937, he graduated from high school teacher in the town of Daegu, for a time worked as a school teacher.
In the years 1940-1942 he studied at Pak military academy controlled by residents of the country of the rising sun country puppet Manchukuo, then? the Higher Military Academy of the Land of the Rising Sun. At the time, he was wearing a Japanese name Takaki Masao. He managed to take part in the second World War on the losing side of the Japanese. For modern Korea (and North and South) biography Pak — is not the way of the hero and collaborator.
Another black spot in the biography of Pak — the post-war years. In the southern part of the liberated from the Japanese Korea, occupied by the Yankees, the communists were persecuted. Pak joined one of communist cells, it caught and sentenced to death. Life got the best of him only that he was an informer and gave all associates. During the Korean War (1950-1953) it is as if nothing had happened is already waging war against the Communists of North Korea. He was trained in the United States and became a general. For any awards — one could only guess.
In the 1950s, Park Chung Hee reincarnated in the 1st of the most noticeable generals of the South Korean army. While country was poor, during the reign of dictator Gen. Lee Scion Mans power is mired in corruption. Those who came to him to replace President Yun Bo Song and Premier Chang Mont endlessly shuffled close ranks. Students in the demonstrations sought democracy and the fight against poverty. And here came the hour "traitor" Pak.
May 16, 1961 he became head of a military coup. Premier Chang Mont was dismissed and President Yun Bo Song lost the real power, but retained his position for another year. Then the Park Chung-hee was not a shadow, but the real acting president. Under pressure from U.S. President John F. Kennedy, he agreed to hold elections for the head of the country and took off his general's uniform. In 1963, he was defeated in the presidential election, and in the history of South Korea's brand new era has begun.
Park Chung-hee is now referred to as the creator of the Korean "miracle." Indeed, in the 1960s, South Korea's economy grew by 25 percent in year, and in 1970 — even by 45 percent. If the beginning of his reign, the per capita income was 72 bucks, by the end — to 10-times as large. If at first the 1960s North Korea ahead of South Korea by the end of 1970 hopelessly behind. If Pak took a peasant country, by the end of his life, she became an industrialized nation.
However, the economic recovery has almost everything likely with the help of the U.S. and the country of the rising sun. Pak made a bid for an alliance with them, which (especially in the case of the Japanese as the former colonizers) was perceived by Koreans versatile. He signed a contract with Japan to normalize relations that assist the country to attract Japanese technology and investment. Pack South Korea sought to reincarnate in the country with the export orientation of the economy — the type of land of the rising sun. And he succeeded.
The second largest investor in South Korea were the United States, the country that provided 10's billions of dollars in grants. In response Pak strongly supported the Yankees in the Vietnam War. He sent them to the aid of two divisions and one brigade of up to 300 thousand people. South Korean soldiers worked quite well, but became famous last brutality against innocent Vietnamese. So inside the country Pak was a reformer, and in foreign policy — more than an obscurantist.
However, the success of reforms to reduce Pak only to foreign aid would be incorrect. He has been active protectionist policy, and strongly defended the South Korean industry is very young. When it appeared several agencies responsible for economic development. Pak helped create chaebol — South Korean special type of network, basic packages which have a family, and all the workers — members of that company. LG, Samsung, Hyundai, Daewoo — they are a kind of offspring of Park Chung-hee.
The downside of the "economic miracle" in Pak became dictatorial regime. In its submission was born in South Korea its Central Intelligence Agency. Only the local CIA engaged in a greater degree intelligence and counterintelligence, and torture enemies of the regime. In 1968, dissatisfied with the rule of Park's SWAT team tried to organize an assassination conspirators but stopped near the presidential residence, and almost all destroyed.
Adopted in 1963, the constitution limited the duration of the presidential possibilities with 2 periods, but Park Chung Hee rewrote it for themselves, and from power in 1971 did not go away. On the contrary, he was re-elected for the third term. A little happened, Park declared a state of emergency, and after year South Korea introduced a new basic law. He increment presidential term to six years, the head of the country from now chosen not to citizens and electors. In 1972 and 1978 Pak again became president — now unopposed.
In the summer of 1974 Park Chung Hee survived the second assassination attempt. During his speech at the State Theatre some guy (according to some sources — agent hated Pak DPRK) fired a dictator with a gun. Fatally wounded received first lady Yuk Young-soo and another woman. Poor little ladies have taken the stage, Park continued his speech as if nothing had happened the same.
By the end of 1979, people are tired of Pak. October 16 at the Institute of Busan (the second largest town of the country) have begun speaking out against the dictatorship, soon splashed onto the streets of a huge city. The authorities tried to suppress them by force, but eventually defected to the side of the protesters and some approximate ruler. October 26, 1979, CIA Director Kim Jae Kyu Park's shot with his own hands. According to him, Teran prevented democratization, and of his regime Koreans already tired. After year murderer hanged.
Park Chung-hee remained in the memory of the inhabitants of South Korea's controversial figure. On the one hand, he laid the foundations of its transformation into a developed government. On the other, it means the control of foreign policy and its true many people do not like them. That in this case outweighs? Everyone has their own answer. But the fact that without the well-being of citizens dictator democracy in South Korea in general would be likely.