Perhaps not in the history of Ukraine control over slander and humiliation than Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi. This is certainly a unique case — Hetman Paul hated almost all contemporaries.
For the Socialists, he was a king and a general "Pan." For adherents of Russian empire — a traitor and a separatist. For the Bolsheviks — the general who stopped them coming to Kiev in November 1917, and the class enemy. And most dramatically — for Ukrainian patriots, he was proclaimed a German doll for a long time and the White Guard sycophant. Although detailed study period Hetmanat leads to very different conclusions.
Hetman accused that he has surrounded himself with only the supporters of the "one-indivisible" Russia. This is not true. In the Hetman's administration of such well-known Ukrainian patriots as Vyacheslav Lipinski, Sergei Shelukhin, Dmytro Doroshenko, Michael Chubinskiy (son of the creator of the hymn "Ukraine Has Not Yet Perished), the future ideologue of Ukrainian nationalism Dontsov and many others. Nicholas Mikhnovsky been asked to be the personal adviser to the hetman, and ideologist of Ukrainian independence supporters did not agree to a ministerial post less. Of course, in the machine Ukrainian country worked many former royal officials. Just as in the days of the Directory. Generals Galkin, Greeks, Sinclair and Yunakov were not just former royal generals — and they do not read as Ukrainian language. Occupy senior positions in the army Dієvіy UNR they do not stop.
Hetman was reproached for the fact that when it took power on the ground people, openly aggressive Ukraine. This really was. Special odious a different marshal Chartorizhsky Kiev and Kharkov marshal Zaleski, who called all Ukrainians Mazepians and Ukrainian language — "unnecessary innovation." However, with their own positions, these characters were not eliminated by the Directory of UNR, and Hetman administration. In fact — for Ukrainophobes. The same applies to punitive expeditions made by the landlords to terrorize the farmers with the assistance of the German High Command. These units were not eliminated the rebels chieftains Angela and greens, and guarding hundred square meters Derzhavnoї Varty on the orders of the Interior Minister Igor Hetman Kistyakovsky.
Nor is it true that the period Hetmanat was a continuous looting of Ukraine by German troops. "Life in Yekaterynoslav lupila key … After the Russian hunger strike hit an unprecedented low prices for food and an unlimited number of them on the market "- recalled Dr. G. of playing. Period Hetmanat actually was a period of revival Ukrainian industry after the devastating Bolshevik invasion. Odin's only coal mining in relation to the times of the Central Council increased 1.5 times (from 30 to 50 million pounds per month). Ukraine had trade with Germany and Austria, sugar, canned meat, vegetable and cream maslomi etc.. Accusing the Hetman of all the deadly sins, UNR Directory in fact enjoyed strong economic performance. "There was an 10-s recollection of hands, clinging to Hetmansky treasures" — recalled the first days of the Directorate staff officer Zaporizhia Army Corps of UNR centurion Avramenka.
But there is a charge which does not wash off — "Letter of the Federation of Ukraine and Russia." This document Hetman Skoropadskyi seems forever renounced the idea of Ukraine's independence and showed their commitment to the "one-indivisible." But it was not all easy.
The verdict of the Entente
Critics Paul Skoropadskiy usually sidestep the fact that the unification of Ukraine with Russia in the administration of the hetman sought Entente. After Germany's defeat in World specifically Entente was the owner of the situation. Ukraine for it was only a German puppet regime. Allied countries were near the agreements related to the royal government of Russia. In autumn 1918, on behalf of the latter to the voluntary Army General Anton Denikin, for which no Ukraine, "No, there was not and will not." Entente not lusted support separatist movements that emerged in the area of state-ally. Because we can assume success Ukrainian diplomacy is the fact that the representatives of the Entente in general have been negotiating with the envoys of Hetman (they ignored the Directory). But they are willing to recognize Ukraine were only a part of. In any other case, Ukraine became an ally for Western Germany, against which it would start a war with the Volunteer Army. And confront them Ukraine could not — she did not have time to form an army.
Come to an agreement with the Allies sought to the same Bolshevik threat. At the VI Congress of Soviets, Leon Trotsky openly declared his intention to seize the Ukraine at the time when the German troops will leave her area. Run the Bolshevik seizure of Ukrainian lands prompted a very pragmatic factor — Ukraine had on hand collection in 1918, and the reddish Our homeland breathed from hunger. Ukraine to give time to deploy its army could only troops of the Entente.
And play the Russian empire in its former borders Entente also not going to. That's why from the hetman not sought the elimination of Ukraine as a municipality, but only its accession to the Russian Federation to one degree or another. Practically the Allies sought to return to the position of Ukrainian Hetman Khmelnytsky time when Ukraine was a part of, having its own government, army and judiciary. Choice Hetman Skoropadsky no one left.
Federation with the Martians
Another fact which stubbornly evade criticism Hetmanat, is that the hetman read the letter about the federation and the state, which at that time was not.
On November 1918 the only state under the title "Russia" was the Bolshevik republic. Of course, with her associate Hetman Skoropadskyi not going to. In November 1918, on the ground of the former Russian Empire, there were self-proclaimed country Ufa directory Vsevelikogo Don and Kuban People's Republic. They all were not Russian. With the same success Hetman Skoropadskyi could declare association with Mars or Venus.
35000th Volunteer Army of General Denikin's no area at the time and there was no control on the ground, in agreement with Don Don same government. That's why in the "Instruments of the federation" in Ukraine are the words: "She was the first to play the All-Russian Federation of Education case, which is the ultimate goal will be to restore the majestic Russia."
A man who "Literacy federation" could lead to reckless fury was General Anton Denikin. "Never, no of course our homeland — the obscurantist or Democratic, Republican or authoritarian not allow exclusion of Ukraine" — specifically because it briefly and clearly expressed his attitude to the Ukrainian question. As a part of Russian Empire Ukraine had no autonomy. The command of the Volunteer Army did not beheld any circumstances, to somehow change this situation in the future.
At the same time, "the instrument of the federation" is nowhere mentioned hetman's abdication from power, either on the Elimination of Ukraine as a country. "Getman said — under the auspices of the Russian Federation on federal principles, with Ukraine retains its sovereignty," — wrote salting Ukraine in Berlin, Baron Theodore Steingel former minister of foreign affairs Dmytro Doroshenko.
Because of the "Instruments of the federation" command Volunteer Army was provided in a very exciting position. On the one hand, the volunteers themselves were barefoot and hungry and did not have enough strength to confrontation Bolsheviks. They expect a long and exhausting war with a force that controlled the entire central part of, and then a more difficult process of lifting the country out of the ruins. They had no idea how it will look the political future of — it had to decide the fate of the Constituent Assembly, the delegates to which it was necessary to elect another in a country where an unlimited number of people was ruled by the Reds.
But with the declaration of "Instruments of the federation" General Denikin had to put up with Ukraine as a reality. Ukraine became legitimate in the eyes of the Entente. Even more, the hetman had been under the control of the terrain on which the war was not conducted plain clothes, working industry and operates its own foreign policy. The volunteers, all of this had yet to be done. Even with the Don and Kuban it was necessary to have something to explain. In such circumstances, the possibility that Ukraine really would have entered into the Russian Federation on the rights of the slave, was almost zero.
Multivectorness on Hetmansky
Hetman administration foreign policy successes negate the situation inside the country. The diary describes multiple Dmitry Doncova prirekaniya hetman of the fact that he had to build Ukraine "in spite of the Ukrainians." Almost from the first day or their power to hetman had to overcome the resistance of Ukrainian society.
The Socialists of the Central Council of Hetman could not stand and cooperate with him flatly refuses. "To my boss, Vice-Minister of the Interior, Wisniewski came Svetozar Drahomanov to fit in your dimisiyu (he was a bureaucrat in one of the ministries of the Central Council), although not remain in" anti-Ukrainian hetman's government. " At this stage Wisniewski read in Ukrainian and in Russian Drahomanov "- recalled Dontsov. Refusing to work in the government, the socialists were active in anti-state activities, not even disdaining collaboration with the Bolsheviks. Vynnychenko not conceal that the funds for the overthrow of the socialist allocated Hetmanat including reddish Moscow. "Negotiations with Manuilsky based on the following: to achieve neutrality of the Bolsheviks in our war against getmantsev. Russian against Russia, we had completely no aggressive goals "- admitted the chairman of the State Union of Ukrainian Mikita Shapoval. This is — after a steep and Kiev massacre.
DERZHAVNAYA Varta (the police) and the Special Staff of the Department of Hetman (political intelligence) knew about this activity and in every way she headed off. As a result — many socialist leaders were arrested State custody. Without batting an eye, the Socialists were given these facts as repression of conscious Ukrainians.
On the one hand, the hetman was under the pressure of the destructive activities of the Socialists, on the other — to achieve a huge number of the most experienced managers. The choice was out of anyone in the country left many royal officials, plus shrouded from Bolshevism of Russia in Ukraine escaped an unlimited number of businessmen, businessmen and the military. But all these people are very skeptical about the very existence of Ukraine. But the hetman decided to use their talents while experienced personnel managers and businessmen would not have grown the number of Ukrainians themselves. Naturally, this Skoropadskiy have to make concessions in the cultural issue — the de facto recognize the equal rights of the Russian and Ukrainian languages. The issue of school education, for example, was the responsibility of the local government — the zemstvo, and is where most of the population (and therefore most of the zemstvo deputies) were Russian (all the big town) Ukrainianization education almost did not happen. As a consequence to the hetman was showered with accusations such as: "he brought to power edinonedilimschikiv" and "building in Ukraine Russia."
These accusations were groundless. Specifically for Hetman Skoropadskyi in Ukraine appeared two Ukrainian Institute (in Kiev and Kamenetz-Podolsk), was discovered about 150 Ukrainian schools and was created by the Academy. Baseless accusations of repression and selective against the Ukrainians. The right-wing pro-Russian organizations were harassed at least Ukrainian socialists. July 7, 1918 DERZHAVNAYA Warta dispersed in Kiev monarchist demonstration. Noteworthy is also the order Hetman MIA: "On order are in restaurants orchestras play Russian monarchist song … though those present listened standing salute … Order: 1. Members of similar demonstrations detain and send in Russia, there they could honorably in fact, not in restaurants, promenades show their predanist expensive for their political ideas. "
Devotion to the realization
Getman Skoropadskyi tried to explain to Ukrainian socialists. October 17, 1918, when it became obvious that Germany's defeat in the war is only a matter of time, was proclaimed hetman charter, in which he expressed his intention to "stand on the ground of independence of the Ukrainian state." On Oct
ober 25 the government had taken five ministers — representatives of the State Union of Ukrainian Andrei Vyazlov, Alexander Lototsky, Peter Stebnitskiy, Nicholas Slavinskii (all from the Socialist-Federalists) and Vladimir Leontovich (non-partisan). With all this Hetman Skoropadskyi went on an unprecedented compromise — were sent down the hated security forces-ONS Minister Igor Kistyakovsky (MIA) and Boris Stelletsky (Chief of Staff of the hetman, the manual which was including the Special Division). Both were very professional organizers, and eliminating them from their positions, of course, affected the quality of information Hetman.
But favorites socialists lusted awareness — they have a September 1918 prepared an uprising against the hetman. Recently served as the initiative of the State Union, although in fact behind it were only your favorites Socialists and command of military units Hetman army riflemen, Black Kosa, Zaporizhia Division, Corps of railwaymen and Podolsky case. "The National Alliance did not fully think about the armed struggle" — penalty Nikita Shapoval.
But on behalf of the State Union was proclaimed the intention to gather on November 17, the Congress of State to determine the forthcoming system of government in Ukraine. Almost Vinnichenko Shapoval ready to cancel getmanstva Congress. How Hetman consider the option of their own personal role in this Congress. "Or to become the most headed the Ukrainian movement, trying to capture everything in his hands. Performing such makarom pictured that I'll announce the Congress, and the membership has changed, adding to its members, not some left-wing parties "- recalled Skoropadskiy. But on November 13 officers Especial department staff Hetman was arrested by his security chief Colonel Arcas. From his counter-intelligence learned that the rebels everything was ready to revolt, and that it was going to happen regardless of the decision of the Congress. On the same day favorites Socialists and rebellious generals formed Directory and decided to start an uprising. No "Instruments of the federation" at the time was not yet.
Pavlo Skoropadskyi was in a hopeless situation. Go with the flow meant to give power to the Socialists, ie persons who at one point has brought the country to the Bolshevik occupation. Getman was convinced that if the Socialists came to power, the Bolsheviks seized with Kiev fast — and he was right. It followed that the bail out Ukraine from enemy invasion was necessary against the will of the Ukrainian people. And Hetman not the first time to build Ukraine "to spite the Ukrainians." Hetman bureaucrats decided to go for broke and build on "Special Corps" — a military unit made up of pro-Russian officers, which will henceforth have to forward to the front to Denikin (and thus Makar get rid of these odious personnel in Ukraine). But in order to rely on the pro-Russian forces, it is necessary to announce the restoration of the "one-indivisible." That's when November 14 came to light "letter about the federation," to which the hetman forced the Allies. "In Ukraine, the federation will take one of the first places since left her order and legality edge" — mentioned in the deed.
But Hetman grossly mistaken in assessing the balance of power. Diplomas after he turned away from him even allied Ukrainian Party: growers Democrats and Socialists Federalists. For the whole country Skoropadskiy became a traitor. Hetman bureaucrats have pinned their hopes that the rebels and edinonedilimschiky exhausted each other and be able to be on the Hetman hassle. In fact, because of the oppression of the rebel troops led by Hetman not personally. But these hopes were not realized. Proponents of single-indivisible, very echoing earlier rallies and newspaper pages are at a crucial moment in the mass mobilization to avoid the formation of the officers. General Keller was appointed commander of the armed forces of Ukraine, was so specific Ukrainophobes that the director began to run across even the hetman Serdyukov and ideological officers Getmantsev.
Proved to be in vain and hope for the Entente. German troops who are still stationed in Ukraine, at that time, did all the orders of the "country of consent." Visit to Kiev, the representatives of France (who were already in Odessa) with the head would be enough, that the Germans have finished all the negotiations with the director and would force the rebels to the negotiating table with hetman. But representatives of the Entente in Kiev did not come. Getman lost and had to abdicate.
But we should not exaggerate the role of Hetman especially in all these events. Within six months, the projects Ukraine's entry into the Russian Federation on a federal basis command of the Army offered a snow-white head chieftain Simon Petljura. But the conditions in which then was Petljura, it was impossible to compare with the Hetman. Allies did not recognize the UPR and with representatives of the Directorate refuses to read. Denikin also go to any negotiations with "separatist Petlyura" had not the smallest desire. Ukrainian army was doomed to war on three fronts, and the coming internment. Absolutely plan on autonomous status of Ukraine as part of the refreshed Empire realized the Bolsheviks. Ukraine has paid for such autonomy and the beauty of the Holodomor Stalin's gulag.
"Instruments of Ukraine with the Russian Federation" was evaluated by different even his contemporaries. Managing Ukrainian hetman Telegraph Agency Dontsov considered it a betrayal, "proclaimed that the letter from the defunct Russian Federation, it is not justified. Questions of state independence is not the policy issues and principles. " At the same time, the past chairman of the Board of riflemen Osip Nazaruk, which with his hands thrust memo about the "Federal literacy" in the declaration of the Directory, in exile sincerely repented for his role in the rebellion against the hetman. He did not consider "the Letter of the federation" betrayal "because Skoropadskyi accustomed to Moscow to Ukraine, not the Ukraine to Moscow."