In the first 11 months of this year on the railways amount returned to the contact network in regenerative braking energy of almost 1.173 billion kW / h This figure is a record for the company. It is interesting to compare this achievement to the same period in 1988, a peak in the Soviet era for freight. Then, this value reached 1.259 billion kW / h
Recovery is considered to be a return to the network of the electricity consumed for its re-use. For example, during braking traction motors of electric rolling stock (EPS) they are transferred to a generator, and the mechanical energy of the train is converted into electrical energy. In general, regenerative braking is to ensure traffic safety. Its role is particularly important in the mountain profile lines, as well as high-speed rolling.
Prolonged inhibition of drum brakes can not be due to the reduction of their effectiveness when heated, so you can use them only intermittently. As a result, the train speed is constantly changing its composition having longitudinally dynamic forces which can break the train or cause the extrusion of cars and another passenger traffic and reduce feeling drive. At high speeds, the stability of the mechanical brake is not sufficient for a smooth deceleration, so they are used only for dotormazhivaniya train before stopping.
Besides the basic functions to ensure safety use of regenerative braking allows you to use the returned energy for traction engines of others, as well as the accessory drive electric cars, for lighting and heating, increasing the energy efficiency of the transport process.
In the absence of other trains on the recovered energy can be returned to the external mains supply. On lines electrified with direct current — only if the rectifier-inverter transformers. Recovery of electrical energy can not be considered its production, as it does not require consumption of energy.
As told to "Gudok" Deputy Head of Technical Policy of JSC "Russian Railways" Boris Ivanov, the company targeted program to improve energy efficiency of the traction power supply, in which the leading transport experts carried out a large-scale university research project "Assessment of energy efficiency systems and traction power supply of electric rolling stock and increase the capacity of its "where considerable attention given to the identification of" bottlenecks "in the use of regenerative braking and increase the efficiency of its use. Before the company should target in 2013 to provide the amount of recovered energy is not less than 1.5 billion kW / h
Assess the effectiveness of regenerative braking is possible by means of simulation, which allows you to determine the value of unrealized energy recovery due to excess tension in the traction network of valid values and forced to go to the rheostat or pneumatic braking, as well as the proportion of sales of energy, which consists of the consumption of trains in operation traction and energy reaching the tire traction substations. This reduces the consumption of electricity from the grid, measured counters traction substations.
In the department of technical policy of "Russian Railways" explained that today's network of roads, electrified with direct current, actual task of replacing physically and morally outdated inverters installed in the 80's. At present, experts have developed an inverter on the basis of a new element with the use of more powerful thyristor, designed for higher voltage class. To improve the efficiency it is advisable to perform its further improvement in terms of ensuring not only six, but twelve-dvadtsatichetyrehpulsovogo and straightening. Serious work of designers and other academic specialists to bring to perfection the logical software inverter control and improvement of the diagnosis.
It should be noted that the conditions of power supply devices in the regenerative braking mode to a greater extent depending on the mode voltage catenary than thrust mode. The most important task today is to inform the general implementation of the proposals of scientists on the control system catenary voltage depending on the train situation. The most difficult issue in this work is to provide a voltage control system for applications of regenerative braking and sustainable energy inverters receiving recovery.
The processes of distribution and use of energy recovery on the single track sections DC is not in doubt, as they have been studied thoroughly enough. Experimental studies show that the balance of realized energy recovery consists of the energy consumed by trains in the traction mode in this and related areas mezhpodstantsionnyh, returning energy to the inverter via bus AC traction substations and losses in the power train from the transfer of energy recovery, the latter as a percentage commensurate with losses in the traction mode.
While the state of measurement tools for traction substations, which is by far the most urgent issue of flux of energy recovery and, of course, the efficiency of its use on the double-track sections of the DC. Therefore, deep full-scale investigations of regenerative braking and energy efficiency recovery today is advantageously carried out at the double-track sections in the presence of a complex structure and the way of trains increased mass.
In accordance with the request of the senior vice-president of JSC "Russian Railways" Valentine Gapanovich at the Sverdlovsk railway station is defined DC for use as a testing ground for the study of the processes and efficiency of regenerative braking energy recovery system in traction power supply.
According to Boris Ivanov, the organization of a permanent ground for investigations of recovery is rather costly undertaking, requiring information about the values of currents, voltages, power and energy for a short period of time with a contact network of feeders and electric rolling stock, and the availability of automated data collection and processing this information.
Testing at such a landfill recovery processes using modern methods and management systems will provide a broad introduction to the road network of used technical solutions and ensure the implementation of the plans of "Russian Railways" to increase the volume of the recovery and the effectiveness of its use.