The complex began to develop in accordance with the 25/08/1960 USSR CM Resolution. Deadline for submission of proposals for future works (including fire testing of experimental batches of samples missiles) — III quarter of 1962. The decree provides for the development of lightweight portable anti-aircraft missile system, which consists of 2-parts weighing less than 10-15 pounds either.
The complex was designed to engage airborne targets, which fly at altitudes of 50-100 meters to 1-1.5 km at speeds up to 250 meters per second at a range of up to 2 thousand sq. Head developer of the complex in general and anti-aircraft guided missiles — OKB-16 GKOT (it was later converted into a clear KB engineering (design bureau) of the Ministry of Defense Industry). This organization during the war and the first postwar years running head designer AE Nudelman also achieved significant success in the development of aviation and anti-aircraft ship small-caliber gun armament. By the beginning of 1960 g’s. OKB already graduated from the development of complex radio-controlled anti-tank missile complex Curb «Phalanx». In developing SAM «Strela-1» (9K31), unlike other missiles close action (such as the South American «Red Eye» and «Chaparral»), it was decided not to use a rocket infrared (thermal) and fotokontrastnuyu seeker. In those years, due to the small level of sensitivity of infrared homing not enforced isolation purposes in the front hemisphere than in connection with shooting at enemy aircraft were only «in pursuit» priemuschestvenno, after their combat missions. In such tactical criteria was a great opportunity liquidation anti-aircraft missiles before they launch rockets. At the same time, the use of homing fotokontrastnoy provided an opportunity liquidation goals on a collision course.
The umbrella organization of developer optical seeker for anti-aircraft guided missiles was determined GKOT CDB-589, the main designer — Crystal VA Then CDB-589 was converted to CDB «Geophysics» MOS, work on the head for a guided missile homing «Arrow» headed Horol DM
Already in 1961, spent the first ballistic missile launches by the middle of next year — telemetry and program launches. These launches have confirmed the possibility of creating complex, which in the main meets the approved requirements of the customer — Head Missile and Artillery Directorate of the Ministry of Defence.
In accordance with the above Decree was being developed and other portable anti-aircraft missile system — «Strela-2». Overall characteristics and weight of this missile system was less than that of SAM «Strela-1». Initially, the development of «Arrow-1» at least some work on hedging «Strela-2», which were associated with a greater degree of those. risk. After the decision fundamentally issues related to the development of SAM «Strela-2», the question arose about the upcoming fate complex «Strela-1», which had virtually the same flight characteristics. For practical use of the SAM «Strela-1» the troops GKOT management applied to the Government and to the customer with a proposal to set this missile system over the highest demands on the greatest reach heights (3.5 sq m) and hitting range (5 sq m), giving up a portable missile system implementation clicking to place on car chassis. With all of this increase in mass of the rocket was provided to 25 kg (15 lbs), width — 120 mm (100 mm), length — 1.8 m (1,25 m).
Customer at this time to determine the concept of combat use anti-aircraft missiles «Strela-1» and «Strela-2». Portable complex «Strela-2» use in defense battalion level and propelled SAM «Strela-1» — At the regimental level air defense, in addition to anti-aircraft samohoke «Shilka» firing range which (2500 m) does not ensure the defeat of the enemy helicopters and planes to start their overseas guided missiles on objects and positions Tank (motorized infantry) Regiment (from 4000 to 5000 m). So Makar, air defense missile system «Arrow 1» having extended the affected area, fits perfectly in the developed system of military defense. In connection with this industry offer appropriate support.
Somewhat later, as a base for a self-propelled anti-aircraft missile system «Strela-1» used armored reconnaissance road car BRDM-2.
Provided that the air defense missile system having enhanced combat abilities, to present joint tests in the III quarter of 1964. But because of the problems with working homing work was delayed until 1967
State. standard tests most experienced SAM «Strela-1» conducted in 1968 on Donguzskom landfill (landfill manager Finogenov MI) under commission headed by JA Anderson Complex adopted a Resolution of the CPSU Central Committee and the USSR Council of 25.04.1968, the
Mass production combat vehicle 9A31 air defense missile system «Strela-1» established at the Saratov aggregate plant MOS and 9M31 missiles — the Kovrov mechanical plant MOS.
AE Nudelman, Shkolikov VI Terent’ev GS, Paperny BG and others for the development of SAM «Strela-1» awarded the State Prize of the USSR.
SAM «Strela-1» in a platoon (4 combat vehicles) belonged to an anti-aircraft missile and artillery battery («Shilka» — «Strela-1») Tank (motorized infantry) regiment.
Fighting vehicle 9A31 complex «Strela-1» was equipped with PU Placing her 4 antiaircraft guided missiles that are in transport-launch containers, optical means aiming and detection equipment rockets and communications.
Complex could carry fire on helicopters and aircraft flying at altitudes of 50-3000 meters at a speed of up to 220 m / s at Dogon course and up to 310 m / s on a collision course with the course parameters to 3 thousand meters, also drifting balloons and unresponsive helicopters. Homing ability fotokontrastnoy allowed to lead a fire only visually visible targets in the background on overcast or clear sky, at the angles between the directions of the sun and the target of more than 20 degrees and an angular excess strip sighting targets over the horizon visible more than 2 degrees. Dependence on background conditions, weather conditions and illumination purpose limited combat use anti-aircraft complex «Strela-1». But, the average estimates of this dependence based on the ability of current enemy aircraft, in the main, to the same criteria as in the practical implementation of the upcoming SAM during exercises and during military conflicts have shown that the complex «Strela-1» could be used quite often and well (for military and economic indicators).
To reduce the cost and increase the reliability of the combat vehicle guidance PU goal was made due to muscular effort of the operator. With the help of lever-arms parallelogram device operator O is between a missile launcher frame, solid viewfinder and lens optical sighting device to the desired elevation angle (from -5 to 80 degrees), and legs by the knee stops connected to the seat, Bridging the launcher azimuth (with all this repelled by the cone mounted on the floor of the car). The front wall of the tower in the sector of 60 degrees azimuth made of bullet-proof transparent glass. Launchers in the transport position fell to the roof of the car.
Shooting on the move ensures almost complete natural poise swinging part, thanks also to the reconciliation of the center of mass of the launcher with missiles from the crossing point swing axes combat vehicle operator with the ability to reflect the low-frequency vibrations of the housing.
In 9M31 SAM was implemented aerodynamic design «duck». Rocket zooms to the target using homing in a manner proportional to the navigation. Seeker transformed radiant energy flux from the target contrast against the sky into an electronic signal, which contains data on the angle between the line of sight «missile-target» Coordinator and the axis of the GOS, as the angular velocity of the band of sight. Sensors in homing served uncooled lead sulfide-photoresistor.
For homing alternately arranged control transmission aerodynamic triangular rudders, equipment management system, and an optical fuze warhead. Behind them was placed a solid rocket engine, its tail section were fixed trapezoidal wings. The rocket used dual-mode single-chamber solid rocket engine. Boost-phase missile accelerated to a speed of 420 meters per second, which midcourse maintained approximately constant.
Launch the slope is not stabilized. Angular velocity of rotation relative to the longitudinal axis of the introduction of limited rolleronov — small rudders on the tail (wing), which were installed inside the disks associated with the rudders. Gyroscopic moment of disks spinning at high speed rolleron unrolled so that heeling rotation decelerated emerging missile aerodynamic force. Similar device for the first time was used on the rocket «Sidewinder» air-to-air South American production and to K-13 — Russian copy of her running in batch production immediately with the beginning of the development of SAM «Arrows-1.» But data rollerony missiles having smaller circumferential vanes unwound for a long time to start under the influence of the air stream which flowed around the carrier plane. To promote timely rollerony antiaircraft guided missile designers complex «Strela-1» using conventional and luxurious device. In rolleron was wound wire secured to the transport container, the free end of the startup. Rollerony at start unwound Cable Lock scheme that was used to start like boat motors.
Contact magnetoelectric sensor in direct contact with or proximity of electron-optical sensor in the case of the lumen nearby targets using PIM (safety adapter) to undermine the guided missile warhead. When PIM bolshennom slip through 13-16 seconds of combat elements of conclusions and could not undermine the warhead. Anti-aircraft guided missile from falling to the ground is deformed and not exploded without causing significant harm to his troops.
The diameter of the rocket was 120 mm, length — 1.8m wingspan — 360 mm.
9M31 missile, with a rocket complex «Strela-2», was one of the first Russian anti-aircraft missiles, which was stored, transported in the transport and launch container and ran out of it exactly. To frame launcher dust splash TPK 9YA23, protects the rocket from mechanical damage, secured with drags.
Combat work antiaircraft missile complex «Strela-1» carried out properly followed. When a target is detected independent visual or receipt targeting arrows operator induces launcher zanitnymi with guided missiles to the target using the optical viewfinder to increase accuracy. Immediately turns on, the board first guided missile (5 seconds — the second), and open the lid TPK. After the beep of the seizure of homing purposes and visually estimating the time of entry into the zone run target, the operator by pressing «Start», produces a missile launch. During the rocket on the container cut off the power cable guided missiles, with all this in PIM shot first stage of protection. Velasya fire on a «shot and forgotten.»
During the tests, the probability of damage caused a guided missile when shooting towards goal, moves at a height of 50 m at a speed of 200 m / s. They were as follows: for the bombers — 0.15 .. 0.64, for a fighter — 0.1 .. 0.6. By increasing the height of up to 1 km and speeds up to 300 m / s probability bomber was 0.15 .. 0.52, and for a fighter — 0.1 .. 0.42.
Ability to engage targets, moving at a speed of 200 m / s when shooting in pursuit ranged from 0.52 to 0.65, and a speed of 300 m / s — from 0.47 to 0.49.
In accordance with the advice of the State Commission for conducting the tests from 1968 to 1970. was upgraded complex. The composition of air defense missile system introduced passive finder developed by the Leningrad Institute «Vector» Ministry of Radio Industry. This finder provide target detection with included onboard radio equipment, its maintenance and commissioning of the field of view optical viewfinder. Also provided for the possibility of targeting on disk imaging with anti-aircraft missile complex Curb passive finder other complexes «Strela-1» lightweight configuration (having no direction finder).
Reduced due to improvements in missile range of the engagement SAMs increased homing accuracy and the ability to hit targets hovering at low altitudes.
Also developed control and screening machine which allows to control work of combat means air defense missile system «Strela-1» according to the entered when upgrading configurations.
State. Tests modernized SAM «Strela-1M» were conducted on Donguzskom range in May-July 1969 under the control of a commission headed by VF Voropayev Adopt-Defense Forces ground troops air defense missile system «Strela-1M» adopted in December 1970.
According to test results could provide SAM defeat helicopters and planes, soaring at altitudes of 30-3500 m, at speeds up to 310 m / s, with exchange parameters up to 3.5 km, and maneuvering with congestion to 3 One unit at a range of 0.5. .. 1.6 to 4.2 km.
In the modernized complex, compared with the complex «Strela-1», the proximal border of the zone has been reduced to 400-600 meters, and the lower zone — up to 30 meters. The possibility of defeat nemanevriruyuschey purpose under uniform backgrounds increased and at altitudes of up to 50 meters at a speed target of 200 m / s at shooting meet for the bombers was 0,15-0,68 and fighter — 0.1-0.6. These characteristics at a speed of 300 m / s at a height of 1 km amounted 0,15-0,54 and 0.1-0.7, respectively, and when shooting in pursuit — and 0,58-0,66 0,52-0, 72.
Combat work antiaircraft missile complex «Strela-1M» had some differences from the SAM battery life «Strela-1». All complexes platoon on the ground in a single guided anti-aircraft missile and artillery batteries «Strela-1» — «Shilka» coordinate system. Between machines supported radio. Command air defense missile system on sound and light indicators radial angle produced radio control situation in the zone acts finder. If you have any sound and light signals commander assessed gosprinadlezhnost purpose. After deciding on the accessories found radar signal to enemy aircraft, the commander, using the internal communication, reported the battery commander, operator of his car and the rest of the platoon fighting vehicles the direction of the target. Battery commander carried tseleraspredelenie between machines platoons ZSU and SAM. Operator received target data, the system included a clear direction finding unfolded PU goal. Convinced accessories acquired signal to the means of the enemy, using synchronous signals in the headset indicator light and accompanied the target before getting it in the optical viewfinder. Then leads to the goal operator PU with rockets. Then run the equipment translated to «Automatic.» Operator, at the approach to the area run goals, included the «board» and supplying power to the board of a guided missile. Runs missiles. Provided in SAM modes «Forward» — «Reversing» allowed to the operator regardless of the position on a set target, its speed and the type of produce in pursuit or shooting forward. So, for example, when starting in pursuit of all types of goals and meet the launches on low-speed targets (helicopters) wondered mode «Reversing».
Battery operated chief defense regiment through automatic IP — IP-12 (MP-12M) — who were with him and the battery commander. Orders, commands, and data on the targeting systems «Strela-1» from the UE-12 (M), which is a battery commanding Fri, transmitted through communication channels produced by a radio station, the available data on the controls and destruction.
SAM «Strela-1» and «Strela-1M» exported from the Soviet Union to other countries is quite extensive. SAM delivered to Yugoslavia in the member countries of the Warsaw contract in Asia (Vietnam, India, Iraq, North Yemen, Syria), Africa (Angola, Algeria, Benin, Guinea, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Madagascar, Libya, Mali, Mozambique , Mauritania) and Latin America (Nicaragua, Cuba). Being used by those States complexes have repeatedly confirmed the ease of operation and own quite high efficiency during firing and military conflicts.
For the first time anti-aircraft missile systems «Strela-1» were used in 1982 in fighting in southern Lebanon in the Bekaa valley. In December of the next year these complexes were downed South American aircraft A-7E and A-6E (can be A-7E was amazed portable complex family «Strela-2»). Several SAM «Strela-1» in 1983 were captured in southern Angola by South African invaders.
The main properties of air defense missile systems Strela-type» 1 «:
Name: «Strela-1» / «Strela-1M»;
1. Lesion area:
— in range — 1 .. 4.2 km / 0.5 .. 4.2 km;
— height — 0.05 .. 3 km / 0.03 .. 3.5 km;
— the parameter — 3km / to 3.5 km;
2. Ability to defeat a guided missile destroyer — 0.1 .. 0.6 / 0.1 .. 0.7;
3. Maximum speed destroys targets to meet / vdogon — 310/220 m / s;
4. Reaction time — 8.5;
5. Guided missile flight speed — 420 m / s;
6. Missile weight — 30 kg / 30,5 kg;
7. Warhead weight — 3 kg;
8. Number of antiaircraft missiles on combat vehicle — 4;
9. Year adopting — 1968/1970.