Russian tank guns. 115-mm smoothbore gun D-68 (2A21)

In the 58th year in a design office HZTM begun to establish a medium tank to 430. Mass of the new tank was 35.48 tons. The tank was equipped with a 100-mm rifled gun D-54TS curb stabilizer "Blizzard". In gun ammunition consisted of 50 rounds. There were sights TPN-1 (night sight) and TPD-43B (rangefinder sight). The gun is equipped with mechanisms extraction of spent cartridges. The chassis of the tank to 430 then used for the T-64. Made a few samples of the object 430, but in a series tank did not go as Morozov began to develop a new tank object 432.

17/02/1961 issued a decree of the Council of Ministers № 141-58 of the completion of all activities on medium tank to 430 and start work on a medium tank to 432. 3 tests of prototypes of the tank to 432 were carried out in the period from November 62 th to May 63rd year. In the first quarter of '64 were manufactured an experimental batch consisting of 10 tanks of the object 432.

Russian tank guns.  115-mm smoothbore gun D-68 (2A21)
The predecessor of the T-64 — Object 430

The tank object 432 installed brand new 115-mm smoothbore gun D-68 (2A21), which has the same ballistics as that of the Y-gun 5TC. The main difference between the gun D-68 was separately loaded with partly burned down the sleeve. Removed only pan liner, to be exact, a small brass sleeve weighing about 4 pounds. The gun was equipped with an autoloader, which gave an opportunity to reduce the loader, bringing the Makarov, the number of crew members to 3.

The unit D-68 close to the unit U-gun 5TC. The main difference was that the semi-automatic gun D-68 was skalochnogo and not spring type as gun Y 5TC. It should be noted that the semi-automatic skalochnogo type was better, and even decided to install it on the Y-gun 5TC. In the ammunition of the object 432 included 40 shots.

Gun D-68 was equipped with a two-plane stabilizer "Lilac-P" with independent line of sight. "Lilac-P" was developed in the CRI-173.

Grau has put forward the requirement that for T-62 tanks and the object 432 shots were united. In the SRI and SRI-6-24 on "Acorn" was being developed rounds of separate loading to the cumulative, sabot and high-explosive projectiles to 115-mm gun D-68 and U-5TC. Accordingly, the two have designed automatic loader. In the design office Uralvagonzavod T-62 made automatic loader, which has a mechanized combat pack, placed in a rotating drum, which is mounted on the bottom of the hulls. Between the tower and the drum provides radial gap, providing the driver-mechanic direct voice and visual contact with the gunner and the commander, who had been in a rotating turret.

In the autoloader to the tank 432, made in the design office HZTM, mechanized combat pack was placed in the gondola, which was attached to the tower. In this connection, a driver fell into total isolation, having communication with the gunner and the commander only using tank intercom. This design scheme created in the Kharkov tank for the driver pesky moral and psychological conditions. In addition, the automatic loader design office Uralvagonzavod for constructive performance was even easier, and, as it should, had a higher reliability and the least labor-intensive in production. However, in the autoloader Kharkov development has 28 shots, and Tagil — 22 shots. In the 61 th year in one of the tanks installed automatic loader "acorn" for up to 22 rounds. But the serial T-62 as before is not equipped with automatic loading.

Batch creation of an object 432 was carried out with the 63rd till the second quarter of '69. Officially, 432 to have adopted 02.01.1967 under the designation T-64. Here, perhaps, it is the order of the Ministry of Defense, and the Council of Ministers Decree № 982-321 on the adoption of a Russian army of a new medium tank came 30.07.1966 year.

The tank was applied to 432 two-stroke 700-horsepower engine 5TDF. As used planetary units box OPF having fixed elements which operate in oil, with gidroservoupravleniem. A unique chassis with coaxial torsion shaft supporting and road wheels with internal shock absorbers, telescopic shock absorbers and caterpillar with rubber mount parallel type provides data mobility properties.

Russian tank guns.  115-mm smoothbore gun D-68 (2A21)
Installing the 115-mm smoothbore gun D-68

But during the operation in parts was found unsatisfactory performance motor 5TDF. In 1969, just when the military operation went down 305 engines 5TDF. Overall, in the period from 1966 to 1969 came from building 879 engines, with all this, the total output to 432 tanks is 1305 pieces.

Tests tank tellurometer

In the first TSNIIAG 1960 was made for the tank to 432 experienced tellurometer standard. According to the factory this tellurometer possessed the best features, compared with a tank periscope rangefinder. TSNIIAG on the basis of this range finder for the T-64 was created by the most experienced and vsesutochnogo standard all-weather radar rangefinder sight. Testing program from this sight-rangefinder (P-8) sent on June 3 66th year in Leningrad on Rzhevki.

Properties TPD / TRPD:
Measurement error range — 5-8% / 0.3-1.1%;
Measurement time range — 25-43 w / 5-15 sec;
The reliability of the measurement range of up motionless target — 100% / 100% of the least;
The reliability of the measurement range to a moving target — the least 100% / 100%;
Ability to work in bad weather (snow, rain, mist, rising air, fog) — very limited / provided;
Ability to work with dust and smoke — limited / provided;
Driving time to work — 2-3 minutes. / 3.5 min.;
Weight — 87 kg / 208 kg;
The volume occupied in the tank — 0.05 m3 / 0,187 m3;
Power — 200 W / 1250 W;
Assembly in the fighting compartment provided regular work crew.

In autumn of the 66th year Rzhevka started testing sight-rangefinder. But representatives from the nightly tests TSNIIAG rangefinder sight refused, as tellurometer given clear evidence in azimuth (in other words, the angle of the horizontal guidance), but the elevation angle (in other words, the vertical guidance) could not give. So Makarov, it became clear that this product may not be the gun. It was decided to test this device as having a range of EDM acts to 3 thousand meters
Shots separate loading to 115-mm smooth gun D-68
Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM5;
Index shot — ZVBM1;
Charge weight — 7.4 kg;
Projectile weight — 5.36 kg;
Shot weight — 18.0 kg.

Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM5;
Index shot — ZVBM5;
Charge weight — 6.6 kg;
Projectile weight — 5.36 kg;
Shot weight — 18.0 kg.

Type of projectile — cumulative;
Index of projectile — ZBK8M, ZBK8;
Index shot — ZVBK8;
Blaster — LG-2;
Charge weight — 4.42 kg;
Projectile weight — 12.94 kg;
Shot weight — 22.5 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 1.48 kg A-IX-20.

Type of projectile — cumulative;
Index of projectile — ZBK8M;
Index shot — ZVBK4;
Blaster — LG-2;
Charge weight — 4.8 kg;
Projectile weight — 12.94 kg;
Shot weight — 22.53 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 1.48 kg A-IX-20.

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — ZOF17;
Index shot — ZVOF24;
Blaster — In-429E;
Charge weight — 4.32 kg;
Projectile weight — 18.0 kg;
Shot weight — 27.0 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 3.1 kg A-IX-20.

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index shell — ZOF17;
Index shot — ZVOF23;
Blaster — B-4296;
Charge weight — 4.3 kg;
Projectile weight — 18.0 kg;
Shot weight — 27.4 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 3.1 kg A-IX-20.

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — ZOF28;
Index shot — ZVOF28;
Blaster — In-429E;
Charge weight — 4.32 kg;
Projectile weight — 18.1 kg;
Shot weight — 27.03 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 3.1 kg A-IX-20.

During the test tank-target was set at 1.5-meter plot of the shaft.

The tank, filled tellurometer, set at a distance of 3 thousand meters. Tank-goal in the optical range finder was clearly visible, with all this at an azimuth beam shone on the radar display three similar in configuration and brightness of a spot. One of the spots corresponded to a radio signal reflected from the tank. With all this TSNIIAG representatives could not explain what were the other two spots. The reflected signal can be given to a wet bush, tubercle covered with wet grass, go though any other subject. So Makar, the device as well as the radar range finder was not fit, because he could not automatic for selection purposes. In this regard, the work done by tellurometer tank for many years.

By the way, in the United States on a tank M60A1 tested electronic telemeter, but adopted it and have not taken due to the low reliability and the highest price.

According to the article by Alexander Shirokorad, the magazine "Arms and equipment"

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