Russian tank guns. 115-mm smoothbore gun U-5TC The Hammer

In the middle of the 1950s. began designing a new medium tank. 100 miliimetrovaya gun D-54TS compared with D-10T had a very long shot. Because HBTU not lusted introduce separate-case loading, it was necessary to increment the diameter of the turret of the tank. That in turn will require extended housing tank. To maintain the correct alignment of the tank changed the arrangement of rollers and so on. The result of this work was the T-62 tank (to 165).

In July, 61-year Russian Union was adopted 100-mm anti-tank gun smooth T-12 "Rapier". Had the idea to establish a "Rapier" in the T-62 tank. But the length of the unitary shot gun was 1,200 mm, because it does not fit into the T-62. So they decided on the basis of a 100-mm rifled gun D-54 tank gun make a smooth having a length of 1100 mm shot (as in the gun D-54).

It turned out that, while maintaining all the external dimensions of the gun D-54 and the refusal of the rifling, caliber guns can be increased from 100 to 115 mm. It was decided to remove the muzzle brake. So in the world appeared first smoothbore tank gun, designated the U-5TC.

Russian tank guns.  115-mm smoothbore gun U-5TC "The Hammer"
T-62 Russian Army on maneuvers, 1970 1980 (file photo Cabal, http://www.militaryphotos.net)

Proving ground tests of 115-millimeter cannon U-5TC held in a converted version of the T-62 (to 166) and in August 1961 in conjunction with a gun In-8TS was put into service. Gun U-5TC excluding industrial index had a proper name — "The Hammer" and the index Grau — 2A20.

In the barrel-5TC consisted of a pipe, which was sealed in the casing of the Kamorny, blowing channel and mechanism of the breech with a holder. Automatic gate horizontal wedge. In the semi-automatic gun implemented mechanical spring type. Recoil device consisted of a hydropneumatic recuperator and a hydraulic brake rollback. Recuperator cylinders and brake roll cage tied into the breech and during the shot rolled back into the trunk.

Most of the gun firing range U-5TC with the introduction of the telescopic sight TSHS-41U for piercing projectiles was 4 thousand meters, for high-explosive shells and cumulative — 3 thousand meters. When using the side-level range of fire high-explosive fragmentation projectile 3OF11 was 5.8 thousand meters. The firing range when using night sight TPN-1 though how the projectile was 800 meters. Loading the gun unitary. Ammunition of the T-62 consisted of 40 rounds of even what type.

At the first T-62 guns installed stabilizer "Meteor" to follow — "Meteor M" and "Meteor M1". Properties — in fact similar. Electronics "Meteor" — lamp, and the following models — the transistor. Stabilizer "Meteor" provides guidance angular velocity guns: horizontally from 0.07 to 16 degrees per second, in a vertical plane of from 0.07 to 4.5 degrees per second.

In the operation of the U-5TC in tanks T-62 revealed that the loading of the unitary shot is fairly labor-intensive process, especially while driving a tank. When loading the cannon's angle was equal +3,5 °, and the rotation of the tower at this point was unreal. Removal from the crew compartment cartridge cases also found inconsistencies because enclose an established mechanism to eject spent cartridges. Sleeve thrown through a small hatch, made in the turret.

Fundamentally drawback Russian 115 — and 125-mm guns was smooth inability to install these tools in the tanks of past samples. So Makar, tanks T-54 and T-55 machine gun obsolete with the emergence of 105-mm rifled gun L7 British manufacturing and 120-mm smoothbore gun company Rheinmetall. And it is on the condition that different countries L7 put on any model of old, right up to the "Sherman".

Ballistics and Ammunition 115-mm smoothbore U-5TC

Shots unitary loading 115-millimeter cannon U-5TC:
Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM3;
Index shot — 3UBMZ
Charge weight — 7.85 kg;
Projectile weight — 5.55 kg;
Shot weight — 22 kg.

Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM4;
Index shot — ZUBM4;
Charge weight — 7.85 +2.4 (extra charge) kg;
Projectile weight — 5.55 kg;
Shot weight — 22 kg.

Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM6;
Index shot — ZUBM5;
Charge weight — 8.1 kg;
Projectile weight — 5.34 kg;
Shot weight — 22 kg.

Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM21;
Index shot — ZUBM9;
Charge weight — 8.0 kg;
Projectile weight — 2.88 (in other sources — 6.26) mm;
Shot weight — 23.5 kg.

Type of projectile — armor-piercing;
Index of projectile — ZBM23;
Index shot — 3UBM1Z;
Charge weight — 8.1 kg;
Projectile weight — 4.36 kg;
Shot weight — 24 kg.

Type of projectile — cumulative;
Index of projectile — ZBK4, ZBK4M;
Index shot — 3UBKZ;
Blaster — LG-2;
Charge weight — 5.1 kg;
Projectile weight — 12.97 kg;
Shot weight — 26 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 1.48 kg A-IX-20.

Type of projectile — high-explosive extended range;
Index of projectile — ZOF18;
Index shot — ZUOF6;
Blaster — In-429E;
Charge weight — 4.65 kg;
Projectile weight — 17.86 kg;
Shot weight — 30.8 kg;
The weight of the explosive in the projectile — 2.8 kg of TNT.

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — ZOF11;
Index shot — 2UOF1 (in other sources — 3UOF1);
Blaster — In-429E or B-4296;
Charge weight — 5.1 kg;
Projectile weight — 14.86 kg;
Shot weight — 28 kg;
The weight of the explosive in the projectile — 2.64 kg of TNT.

Type of projectile — high-explosive;
Index of projectile — ZOF27;
Index shot — ZUOF37;
Blaster — In-429E;
Charge weight — 4.65 kg;
Projectile weight — 17.82 kg;
Shot weight — 30.75 kg;
Weight explosive projectile in — 3.13 kg A-IX-20.

Shots with sub-caliber armor-piercing projectiles BM3, BM4, PM6 in its combat and tactical and technical features virtually equal. The elevation setting when shooting them were similar. The initial velocity was 1,615 feet per second. Blank range at a target height of 2700 mm sabot projectile — 1870 meters. Range of shooting at tanks is about 2 thousand meters.

Tabular gunshot UBK3 with a cumulative projectile — 3 thousand meters. According to the projectile moves the targets recommended to shoot at 1.5 thousand meters. At a height of 2700 mm in goal-blank range for cumulative projectile is 1.2 thousand meters, at an initial speed of 900 m / s.

Differences cumulative projectiles BK4 and BK4M are solely applicable to the cumulative funnel material: BK4 has an iron funnel and BK4M — copper. Shell, having a copper funnel has several best armor penetration in comparison with the shot with a metal funnel.

Penetration piercing projectiles BM3, BM4 and PM6 115 millimeter cannon Y 5TC: at a distance of 1000 meters at 0 ° to the normal 250 mm, at 60 ° to the normal 135 mm at a distance of 2000 m at 0 ° to the normal 220 mm, 60 ° with the normal 110 mm. Penetration cumulative projectile BK4M: at a distance of 1000 m at 0 ° to the normal 440 mm, at 60 ° to the normal 200 mm at a distance of 2000 m at 0 ° to the normal 440 mm, at 60 ° to the normal 200 mm.

U-gun 5TC have adopted with high-explosive projectile OF11, the original speed of which was 905 meters pe
r second and a range of 5.8 thousand meters at an angle of 16 degrees. Later on arms took shell "Extended range" OF18 having an angle of 16 degrees range Accuracy 9.5 thousand meters.

For all smoothbore cannon shots U-5TC used monotonous sleeve: iron 4G9 weight 7.95 kg or brass 4G10A weighing 8.45 kilograms. The shots from the sabot projectile equipped only with brass sleeves, because they have great reliability.

According to the article by Alexander Shirokorad, the magazine "Arms and equipment"

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