Russian tank guns. Against the Tigers and Panthers

In the initial period of the war tank guns ZIS-5, L-11, F-32 and F-34 just pierced the armor of German tanks, as superior to their own ballistics German 50 — and 75-mm tank guns.

The picture changed in 1943 — booking major German tanks T-III and T-IV increased, also appeared on the front languid tanks "Tiger" and "Panther" with a long-barreled 75 — and 88-millimeter guns. Guns of Russian tanks in combat were ineffective. Middle and languid tanks needed new tools more power. To save time, it was decided to take as a base gun, which has already been performed serially. There was nothing to choose a 107-millimeter cannons to create finished in 1941, and the 95-millimeter cannon on stage trials have not moved. There remained only 52K — 85-millimeter anti-aircraft gun model. 39th year.

Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
T-34 mod. 1944. Gun ZIS-S-53, caliber 85 mm
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
Creating a T-34-76. On the frontal plane 76.2 mm gun F-34 standard in 1940
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
Masked Russian tank T-34-76 with a gun F-34 on the east bank of the Don in the defense of Stalingrad
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"

Tanks T-34-85 with the D-5T guns stormed a separate, near Odessa, 1944

Work on the 85-millimeter tank D-5 were launched in January 43rd year, they managed to Petrov. In the gun barrel has been applied ballistics 52K, and a bassinet and some other items were taken from the most experienced 122-millimeter Howitzer Tank U-9. The structure of the gun barrel were free pipe, welded casing and navintnoy breech. V vertical shutter having a semi-automatic follower type of device gate is similar in the F-34. Released two versions of the gun D-5: tank D-5T and propelled D-5S (also designated D-5S-85). Guns D-5T in the 43 th, the armed languid tanks KV-85 and IS-1 (EC-85). But to set the D-5T in medium tanks T-34 was necessary to increment the diameter of the ball overhead, in the 43rd was not made because the management of the Central Artillery Design Bureau (TsAKB) gave a promise to make 85-mm cannon that can be fixed in T-34 with no configuration overhead. But to realize this, and could not for the gun ZIS-S-53 increment width overhead up to 1600 mm (1420 mm). 85-mm gun D-5T within 44 months of the year was set at the T-34 with increased tower and epaulets. In operation, the D-and L-5C 5T revealed several structural defects in most cases broke Linkage.

In the summer and fall of the 43rd, the competitive tests conducted 85-mm tank guns, designed for T-34: LB-1, C-50 and C-53. All of these guns had ammunition and gun ballistics 52K.

Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"

Installation scheme gun ZIS-S-53 in the turret of the T-34 mod. 1944

1 — armor protection gun, 2 — bracket cradle for mounting machine guns, 3 — Gun 4 — Scope 5 — key cradles, 6 — wedge bolt gun, 7 — the breech of the gun, 8 — magnet electric trigger, 9 — hinged suspension of sight, 10 — lateral level, 11 — gilzoulovitel, 12 — flywheel aiming angles, 13 — lanyard, 14 — left panel fencing, 15 — electric trigger lever, 16 — Linkage, 17 — switches guns and machine guns, 18 — stop fastening gun in traveling , 19 — Bracket, 20 — bracket cradle for mounting a sight, 21 — flange for mounting the cradle to the armor protection guns, 22 — cradle; 23 — gun barrel

Tests have shown that the best of them is the gun S-53. GKO decree of 01.01.1944 was given a gun adopted it. But first the 44th, during ground tests revealed significant shortcomings chock device gun S-53. The united efforts of TsAKB and plant number 92 gun finalized and put on the gross creation, giving it the index ZIS-S-53 ("VMS" — the index of the plant. Stalin's number 92, "C" — the index TsAKB).

TsAKB in 1945, was developed by modification of the ZIS-S-53, which was equipped with a gyroscopic stabilizer odnoploskostnaya — ZIS-S-54, but in a series, the system did not go.

LIS-C 53 installed on the majority of T-34-85 and T-44.

Creating a 85-mm gun D-5T was conducted over a 2-years: a 43-year 283 guns were fired in the 44th, the — 260. Gun S-53 was carried out exclusively in the 44th year — 11518 pcs., And its modification ZIS-S-53 only in the 45th city — 14265 pcs.

85-mm gun, which has the power ballistics 52K, a limit for the T-34, but for a weak languid IP. In this regard, in 1943, under the control of Petrova in the design office Motovilikha plant started designing the 122-mm tank gun (taken as the base 122-mm gun cabinet A-19). Instead of a free pipe having a guard entered the trunk of candy. The piston valve changed the horizontal breech having a mechanical semi-automatic. In addition, a gun equipped with a muzzle brake. The gun had separate-case loading. Newcomer gun given the index of D-25T (letter "T&
quot; denotes the tank, installed on self-propelled version of the D-25S, which has no muzzle brake).

Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
IS-1 with the D-5T gun (Object 237)
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
IS-2 mod. 1944. 122-mm gun D-25T

Tank gun D-25T equip telescopic sights TS-17, TS-21, TSH2 TSH2-21-27, TS-27K and 27K-TSH2. There was also a side level. The firing range when using a telescopic sight was 5 thousand meters, and the use of lateral level — 15 thousand meters. Experienced standard D-25T made in late November 43rd was the end of the year made 45 serial D-25T, In 1944 — 2394, and in 1945 -3138.

Gun D-25T have adopted, giving it the designation "122 — millimeter tank gun standard in 1943." Its installed on tanks IS-2, IS-3, and in the postwar years, the IS-4.

Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"
Installation diagram D-5T gun in the turret of the tank IS-1
IS-2 mod. 1944. 122-mm gun D-25T
Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"

Installation diagram D-25T gun in the turret of the tank IS-2

1 — brake roll, 2 — drive to the flap telescope lens, 3 — holder telescope, 4 — mounting bracket nalobnik 5 — schedule filled recuperator 6 — catch tray, 7 — trigger, 8 — lateral level, 9-hole in the mobile bookings for coaxial machine gun DTM, 10 — right pin gun, 11 — the right arm cannon installation, 12 — installation bracket gun, 13 — gun shop, 14 — DTM machine gun, 15 — basting bassinet, 16 — recuperator cylinder, 17 — the brake cylinder Rollback, 18 — valve handle, 19 — breech, 20 — closing mechanism, 21 — lever on the descent striker, 22 — nalobnik sight, 23 — left arm cannon installation, 24 — left pin guns, 25 — mask guns, 26 — hole in the mask for sight; 27 — hole in the mobile bookings for sight; 28 — shock absorber mobile bookings, 29 — a cradle guns

Technical properties of the tank gun ZIS-S-53
Caliber — 85 mm;
Barrel length — 54 gauge;
The vertical guidance — from -5 to +25 degrees;
Weight of swinging — 1150 kg;
Rate — 5-6 shots per minute;
Weight of armor-piercing projectiles — 9.2 kg;
The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile — 800 m / s;
Penetration at normal at a distance:
500 m — 110 mm;
1000m — 100 mm;
Penetration at normal for the sabot projectile at a distance of 500 m — 140 mm

Technical properties of the tank gun D-25T:
Calibre — 122 mm;
Barrel Length — 48.6 calibers;
The vertical guidance — from -3 to +20 degrees;
Weight of swinging — 2400 kg;
Rate — 2-3 shots per minute;
Weight of the armor-piercing projectile — 25 kg;
The initial velocity armor-piercing projectile — 800 m / s;
Penetration at normal at a distance:
500 m — 155 mm;
1000 meters — 145 mm.

Russian tank guns.  Against the "Tigers" and "Panthers"

According to the article by Alexander Shirokorad, the magazine "Arms and equipment"

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