First, it is necessary to pay attention to the driving characteristics of tanks. Often compared only reference characteristics of what is called, in the hothouse criteria. Of course, the parameter "maximum speed of the tank on the highway" is a certain enthusiasm, but he obviously is not sufficient to assess the ability of this armored car. We can also add the type and power of the motor. For example, one time a promising type of propulsion system for the tank at home and abroad was listed as a gas turbine engine. And the truth is, he is able to give great power, if diesels are the same weight and size characteristics. Go with this CCD for great power consumes markedly less fuel. But with all this similar powerplant has just indecorous fuel consumption in the absence of a long-time work in the same mode. In addition, tangible gains in the consumption of fuel in case of CCD only comparable with huge capacities. In other cases, the consumption of fuel leads to a tank that receives the corresponding additional fuel tanks, as T-80. On the other hand, gas turbine engines have the smallest dimensions in comparison with the same diesel power and least demanding of the cleanliness of air flowing into them. As a result, the type of power plant rather not pick up the dictionary definitions of judgment, and of the economic aspect of the operation and its criterion. For example, a Russian criterion is applicable as diesel tanks and gas turbines, as we look to the Russian armored units.
As for the power of the motor (and it is one of the main reasons for the experiments with GTE), many people believe that the bigger it is, the better. In principle, there is a reasonable grain. But the high specific power of the motor — this parameter refers to the ratio of engine power and combat weight of the tank — drags not only increase navigation features, and a huge burden on the mechanisms and greater fuel consumption. Opinions on the specific characteristics of the allowable capacity of the tank is constantly changing. At the moment, the recommended value for this parameter is in the range of 20-30 hp / ton Needs to be seen in a number of circumstances, and Russian, and zabugornom tank builders occasionally manages to raise specific power than 25 horsepower per ton. For example, the power density of the T-90A is approximately equal to 21.7, while the South American "Abrams" and the German "Leopard» 2A6M does not exceed 24 hp / ton With all this at the expense of the least militant mass Russian tank loses only noticeable at the higher speed and throughput in all 3 cars approximately similar.
Modern tank has in its composition not only the engine, box and track. Chassis is the first platform for installation of weapons. And the arms is more, and more than a fundamental part of the tank. In a long time, the main indicator of the combat effectiveness of the tank was the caliber of the gun. With the passage of time, thanks to the emergence of new, more sophisticated weapons systems, improving the caliber reached values of about 120-125 mm and braked on it. In the 60-ies of the last century, when the caliber tank guns headed for contemporary values, accuracy, efficiency and range of fire was transferred to the "duty" ammunition and fire control systems. The range of all modern tanks comes several types of shells from high-explosive armor-piercing to piercing feathered. But restrictions on caliber and as a consequence, by weight of a powder charge in the cartridge, and flatness of the trajectory of the projectile limits the range of fire. Most modern tanks rarely have a firing range of 4-4.5 km. For this purpose a few decades back Russian engineers began to create anti-tank missiles with the ability to run through the barrel of a tank gun. So Makarov, in the case of the T-90 the largest range of defeat enemy armored vehicles increased to 5 km.
A separate topic for debate is the automatic loader. Thanks to this exciting mechanism crew of Russian tanks have long matches the song from the movie "Tractor". With all this debaters on both sides completely and rightly mention pros and cons of automation. Naturally, automatic loading speeds and simplifies preparing to fire, which, in turn, leads to an increase in the practical rate. But he has a few relevant negative traits. Thus, irrespective of whether the system has a finite capacity machine and it is almost always less than the total number of shots that can be loaded into the tank. Because in the already mentioned as an example of the T-90 autoloader can hold only 22 of the projectile 42's. According to the exhaustion of supplies in the cells of the crew of mechanics have without the help of a gun or other charge transfer from the shells laying in the cell autoloader that martial criteria is far not the most comfortable and enjoyable affair. In addition, often an autoloader Russian tanks are compared with the laying of the American "Abrams". The fact that South American designers placed the shells in a separate armored box, running sliding door. With this crew is in some measure protected from the detonation of ammunition. The absence of a similar system on the Russian and Russian tanks on the views of some professionals and amateurs of military equipment, lowers the chance of survival in case of defeat, the crew of the tank. With all this, one must adm
it that the presence of ammunition in comparable long-range missiles reduces the possibility of damage the tank and following the detonation of munitions.
Usually tanks opposed to fire the enemy armor. Until that time, it was enough just to build up the thickness, but later developed means of destruction to such an extent that it is quite protected by armored car simply could not move due to its own weight. First came the composite armor, and then the active protection system. At the current time, active protection is the de facto standard for all modern tanks. According to the American concept of the "onion layers" of protection of the tank, made in drafting the XM1202, active protection refers to the fourth layer — avoid falling. Again, available in the public domain properties of modern active protection systems do not allow to assert that shot up on the tank. This total, as well as a host of other "elements" of modern warfare, will have a probabilistic nature. Naturally, no one voiced percent reliable destruction of ammunition flying up their own system of active protection.
Eventually electronics. Modern technology simply unimaginable without electric computational tools, if only because of support unloading crew. First is to direct their attention to the tool management system (LMS). The operation of these systems is the most difficult and once with this most demanding. MSA is to collect all available information, to shortchange her and instantly give "advice" on target acquisition. Specifically for this purpose modern tank must have not only the sight, and a laser range finder, a stabilization system, ballistic computer, and night vision devices. The latter provide not only comfort in night driving criteria, and help create aiming at Nekhoroshikh lighting at dusk or NIGHT MODE. We often hear that the Russian electronics very behind imported. In the case of tank equipment that statement is true only in part. No direct analogues of consumer electronics does not prevent the Russian tank designers equip their products systems, absolutely appropriate requirements. For example, a fire control system 1A45T "Irtysh", installed on tanks T-90, its composition has all the necessary equipment for the work. For example, a laser range finder to determine the distance of the complex allows you to target in the range of 400 to 5000 meters, which is sufficient for reliable tracking targets at ranges of shot. In addition, the same laser device is used for targeting guided anti-tank missiles. Immediately it is impossible not to recognize that the thermal sight of the Belarusian production of "Essa" in its features a little inferior zabugornom counterparts, first in visual range. Naturally, the lag of the 1st unit does not seem something fatal, but in practice, the fate of the combat vehicle may decide it does not matter what kind of detail.
Noteworthy that the lag in some areas, the Russian tank builders and their allied counterparts compensate for other things. For example, specifically Russian tanks were the first in the world were equipped with optronic oppression. Already in the late 80's it became clear that the main danger for the tanks are guided munitions, including air and induced by a laser beam. OEP complex "Blind-1" detects induced by laser beams, and a tank, depending on the direction of the danger, makes shooting aerosol grenades that hides the tank from the radiation enemy targeting system. Also in the "Curtains-1" has two infrared illuminator. They make the flare, on its own modulation similar IR tracers anti-tank missiles BGM-71 TOW, HOT, Milan, etc. types. Due to the massive light spot covering the tank, the anti-complex control equipment can not find the position of the missile, which leads to significantly decrease the likelihood of a successful hit. In addition to the protective function of the infrared illuminator system of "blind-1" can be used for the operation of other systems, for example, for infrared illumination in night criteria.
As we see, a number of structural features of the building and the like just do not allow any crank revolution in the tanks. Because modern Russian armored vehicles continue to be direct competitors zabugornyh. It should be added tactical information and nuance of modern war: even a substantial an advantage over the enemy's own technology does not give tribute to the result without providing communication between departments and timely transfer of required disk imaging. Because once with the creation of new tanks — principal, whether they are "independent" or on a single platform — attention should be paid to the means of communication and control. In the unlikely event all the shortcomings and gaps will not be offset by the positive aspects and positive aspects, in turn, will not allow any utility.
According to the materials of websites:
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