A new study by U.S. scientists shows that black holes — perhaps, one of the most mysterious objects in the universe — just as unique as the people. Theoretically, they can be distinguished "in the face" and even "ask" about the distant past.
A team of scientists led by Professor Samir Mathur (Samir Mathur) from the University of Ohio (Ohio State University) has developed a new theory of the structure of black holes, resolving long tantalizing physicists "information paradox."
According to the classical model of a black hole — absolutely does not matter from which it was built: the protons and electrons in any proportion, gas, planets or stars.
The monstrous gravity makes all this material into some absolutely homogeneous structure.
The same fate awaits the matter falling into a black hole after its creation.
Thus, in the present accepted version, all black holes in perfectly identical and differ only in the mass, and with a diameter of so-called event horizon within which nothing can leave the black hole.
According to the calculations of the famous physicist Stephen Hawking (Stephen Hawking), it appeared that he had fallen into a black hole particle does not affect it. Except for a corresponding increase in weight, of course.
But this theory has generated controversy with one of the laws of quantum mechanics — the law of reversibility. It states that the theoretical calculations must be able to trace any process, including the one that gives rise to a black hole, back to the conditions that are "launched" him.
If all black holes are the same, then no black hole can not be, even in theory, is traced back to its unique beginning, and any information about the particles that created the hole is lost forever.
Mathur questioned in such circumstances and called for help from well-known string theory, according to which all fundamental particles are composed of objects called strings.
The strings may overlap, svivatsya rings form helix and all — behave in the most mysterious ways. And we perceive in our scale of this "game" of strings, as the particles that make up the world.
The physicist has calculated how to behave like strings, combined in a very massive and extended object, a kind of giant "elementary particle". To find solutions it took him several years.
In Mathur helped international group Oleg Lunin (Oleg Lunin), Ashish Saxena (Ashish Saxena) and Yogesh Srivastava (Yogesh Srivastava).
It turned out that the strings can form a very complex elastic and elastic structure large extent.
But as far as this scheme corresponds to reality? Gradually increasing the mass of the material in the model Mathur "won" in the end the black hole.
And what's interesting — it was the diameter corresponding exactly to the cross section is the event horizon of the hole of the same mass, but calculated by the classical model.
The new structure of the black hole called "Fluffy ball" (fuzzball).
In different ball of black holes can have a variety of forms — as if millions of people and artistic paintings. Black holes, according to Professor Mathur, unique and unrepeatable.
This means that black holes do not dissolve completely, but in a tangled web of strings is information about the particles that gave rise to the space monster.
Interestingly, the information paradox in 2000, was included at number eight in ten major physical problems it faces in the third millennium.
Some scientists have even made bets: information is stored in a black hole or not. They hardly thought otgadka be found so soon.
However, the physics, the losers bet can always say that Mathur was wrong, and offer even some theory.