The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire. Part 3

In Constantinople grew despair and hopelessness, but in the Turkish camp, all was not well. A tremendous army and navy, with massive guns and a lot of other assault equipment, have gained little. The walls could not be overcome, were safely that the town will help with the West. Walking rumors about the imminent arrival of the Venetian fleet, and the transition of the Hungarian army across the Danube. A truce with the Hungarians has been disconnected. In addition, part of the close of the Sultan, in particular his father's advisers were opposed from the beginning of the siege.

These were the last days of talks with the Sultan of urban residents. Mehmed offered to surrender the city, saving lives and property of the inhabitants of the city, or once a year to pay tribute to a giant of 100 thousand gold of Byzantium. The Byzantines did not accept this proposal. City they were not going to take, and at such tremendous resources were not there. Constantine offered to give all possessions, not including town. Sultan said that urban residents was little choice: surrender of the town and the care of it, death or transition of the population to Islam. At that negotiations are over.

The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire.  Part 3

Recent fighting, falling campus

May 25th Sultan Mehmed gathered advice. Vizier Halil Pasha proposed to suspend the siege. It was against this idea from the beginning and believed that the course of the siege, confirms that he was right. Recalled a number of failures. In his view, could come soon fleet of Venice, and then Genoa. Therefore, it is necessary to make peace on the criteria and profitable to go. Zaganos Pasha said he did not believe in fear majestic vizier. The European powers divided and the Venetian fleet, and if comes, will not be able to do anything. He said the attack should be strengthened, not go away. Many of the young military leaders supported his position. The Sultan ordered the preparation of the assault.

26 and 27 May, the city was subjected to severe bombardment. The Greeks tried to return at night ruined fortifications. May 27th Sultan toured the troops and announced the imminent decisive assault. Follow him spokesmen announced that the city will be given "to the fighters for the faith" in the complete looting for three days. Mehmed promised fair division of the total production. These speeches were met clicks joy. May 28, 1453, Sun, was declared a day of repentance and rest, so that Muslim warriors rested before the decisive battle. Tuesday announced the day of the assault.

At this time, the Sultan gathered his own advisers and military commanders at the meeting. It was decided to send troops wave after wave until the defenders did not falter. Zaganos Pasha received puzzle to plant some of its own forces on ships and land troops to attack the walls of the Golden Horn. His other forces were to go on a pontoon bridge and storm Vlaherna quarter. The right of the wall section to Harisiyskih stormed the gates Karaca Pasha. Ishaq and Mahmoud puzzle got to storm the walls of the gate of St.. Romana and the Sea of Marmara. Sultan himself was going to hit near the river Lycos.

The town government has invited to discover all the influential people and warlords. Constantine had read about the need to be ready to die for the family, the home, the emperor and faith. Reminded of the exploits of their Greek and Roman Protz. Thanked those present and urged Italians to stand up to the last defenders. Then he walked around the room and asked for forgiveness for all. All followed suit, hugging and saying goodbye, as before his death. In St.. Sophia had flocked to everyone who was not on the walls, Orthodox, unionists and Latins. They confessed, prayed, and it was a real moment of unity of all Christians in the face of terrible threat.

In the evening on May 28, the Turkish camp was moved: the Ottomans completed last production, some end up falling asleep ditches, others rolled up close guns and battering rams, catapults. On the night of 28 to 29 May there was a terrible noise caused by the roar of voices and different instruments, and the Turks rushed to the assault on the entire band of fortifications. Patrol in the town raised the alarm, the church knocked the alarm, all the men rushed to the walls. Ladies helped them carry water, stones, boards, logs. Old men and kids gathered in churches.

Sultan has somewhat changed the original plan and not thrown in their best strength and bashi-bazouks. These were the mining and adventure seekers from various states, including Christians — Hungarians, Germans, Slavs, Italians and even Greeks. Attack was all over the walls of the strip, but the main thrust was applied to the plain Lycos. Other areas were to divert the Greek forces. Quest immediately took violent temper. Bashi Bazouks faced with angry resistance. Giustiniani fighters were better armed, trained, and have at their disposal almost all the muskets and arquebuses, which were in the town. To a place of struggle and Constantine came to cheer fighter. After nearly two-hour battle, the sultan withdrew the Bashi-Bazouks. The Greeks began to restore the building, but had not much. With the support of artillery, rushed to battle the second wave of Turkish — regular troops from Anatolia. They were much better armed, organized than Bashi Bazouks, also among them were fanatics. But they, like the Bashi Bazouks suffered huge losses — an unlimited number of people were concentrated in a narrow place, it allowed patrons get in almost every shot or a stone's throw, throwing spears.

The Greeks successfully fought off, and the second storm, about an hour before dawn began to choke and this wave. But at that time the core of the "Basilica" has made a huge dent in the fortifications. In a break immediately rushed about three hundred Turks. Ruler with warriors surrounded them and forced their way most of the Turks was killed, some were rejected for the breach. Such an angry rebuff led Turk disconcerting to the same forces were already tired. Anatolian side were opened to the initial position. In other areas of the sample were repulsed the assault. In the Golden Horn Turks restricted demonstration plant Troopers they did not dare.

The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire.  Part 3

The Sultan did not wait until the Greeks and close up the gap, and threw in a third wave of struggle — the Janissaries. Sultan Mehmed brought them to the pit, and stayed there, cheering on their own favorites. Real have gained the highest point: selected Turkish troops fought with the already sluggish warriors who fought for several hours. Raging battle was about an hour. It seemed that this wave of defenders beat off. But it happened at once two incidents that have dramatically changed the picture of the battlefield. Several Turks saw the door (Kerkoportu) between the wall and Theodosius Vlakhernskoe quarter, through her defenders were doing raids. Someone forgot to close it, and a small detachment of the Turks was leaked to the wall. The Christians saw it and rushed to close the door to cut off a small vanguard of the enemy. At the same time, the area Lycos bullet or shrapnel core was injured Giu
stiniani Longo. Bleeding profusely and experiencing a lot of pain, he asked his colleagues to make the battlefield. The ruler Constantine asked him to stay, so as not to confuse defenders. Giustiniani insisted, that it was taken away. Bodyguards carried him to the Genoese ships — after the fall of the town that will erupt in the sea (Giustiniani did not recover from their own wounds and died in June 1453). Genoese soldiers without their own commander, confused, panicked, someone felt that they had been abandoned, and the battle was lost. The Genoese fled, leaving the Greeks and Venetians. The Turks saw the commotion in the middle of enemies and one company was able to climb to the Janissaries crest broken fences. The Greeks rushed at them, and the Janissaries were almost all killed, but were able to withstand so much, that they were joined by others. The Greeks tried to fight off the pressure, but were repulsed. People ran to hide behind the inner wall. Ruler with a few companions fought at the gates of the inner gate, the Turks have not identified him and he died the death of the brave. Together with him fell and his cousin Theophilus Palaeologus.

Immediately Turks flooded into Kerkoportu, Genoese Bokkiardi was too little to stem the flow. Came the cry: "The city is taken!" In the area of Kerkoporty Genoese still some time fighting, later realizing that the game is up, began to make its way to the ships. One of the brothers Bokkiardi — Paolo died and two others were able to get to the ship and moved to Peru. Minotto Venetians were surrounded in the ancient imperial palace in Vlaherna. Many were killed, some were taken prisoner (some later executed.) Turkish ships in the Golden Horn received the news of a breakthrough, landed troops and virtually no resistance defeated the wall. The Venetians have rushed to their ships, the Greeks fled their homes, trying to save the family. Team 2-Cretan ships barricaded themselves in three towers. On a site south of Lycos fighters were surrounded, most fell, trying to break through. Notaras L., F. and D. Contarini Cantacuzenus captured. True, he was executed later when Notaras refused to give the 14-year-old son in the harem of the Sultan, Mehmed adored young boys. In a number of places themselves defenders surrendered and opened the gates, in exchange for a promise to keep their homes and families. The prince Orhan with his Turks and Catalans fought to the last. I must say that the prisoners fighter was not much — about 500 fighter and Greek mercenaries. Other defenders fell or were able to escape.

The town was looting and massacres. Turkish sailors, fearing that the city without their plunder, threw ships and fled to city. It got the best of the lives of many urban dwellers. The Genoese, led by Alvise Diedo in Pere cut their straps that held the chain. Log out of the bay was opened and several Venetian, Genoese and Byzantine ships fled, taking those who could not. The Turks were not able to stop them. The last center of resistance was in the three towers near the entrance to the Golden Mountains. Cretan sailors kept longer anyone to knock them failed. They gave up only when they have promised to life and freedom. Turkish commanders kept their promise — Cretans have allowed to embark on their ships and relaxed get away.

The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire.  Part 3


— The soldiers were entitled to a three-day robbery, as they promised. Turks and other subjects of the Sultan occupied the entire city. Initially, many people were killed, including women and children. Then people began to seize to implement. For example, in St.. Sofia destroyed all the old men and cripples, but captured the young ladies, women, boys, influential people.

In the process of looting and riots killed and missing mass cultural values, including real artifacts, like icons of the Virgin Protectress (The Guide). It is the tradition was carried by Luke. Soon the cream of the Sultan put things in order, it was the Turkish town and he did not want to further damage. To many notable Byzantine captives sultan show mercy, even he bought. But many Italians are awaiting execution.

— With the death of Constantine XI and Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire ended its existence. Its lands were part of the Ottoman Empire. Urban residents sultan granted the right of self-governing communities inside the country, the community was headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople. He was responsible for it before the Sultan. Himself Turkish Sultan, was considered to be the successor of the Byzantine ruler and took the title of Kaiser and Rum (Caesar of Rome).

Modern Turkey and the assault on Constantinople

On the relation of the modern Turkish society to the fact of occupation of Constantinople and the Byzantine terrain, soft-spoken states the fact of opening in Istanbul 2009 Panorama Museum, "1453." The Fall of Constantinople 29 May 1453 served as one of the most important and heroic events in the history of the Turkish country. To date the fall of the Turkish capital of the Byzantine Empire represents approximately the same as for the people of the Russian Federation — May 9, 1945. The importance of this museum and action states and the fact that the decision to develop a panorama taken in 2005 at the highest level, the Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

In terms of common sense it looks very interesting. The Turks are proud of the event during which the army of Mehmed II held a large-scale capture and "cleansing" of the old capital of the country. The townspeople were part of the cut, is often sold as a slave, must be part of the subjects of the Sultan, and driven into a "self-managed communities" (ghetto). Constantinople was stained with blood, plundered St.. Sofia and a number of other temples turned into mosques. Just a standard set of military atrocities. But for the Turkish people — this is the greatest feat of the nation …

The fall of Constantinople and the Byzantine Empire.  Part 3

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