Difficult to understand the prerequisites of the First World War and following it the second world war, if there is no response to a number of fundamental issues. Preparing a large pan-European war? If prepared, by whom, and for what purpose? Why war was imminent? Many researchers have gone the easy way and dubbed as the circumstances of the war ambition of certain dynasties or "ill-advised rush to any people" (A. Debidur. "History of European diplomacy").
We can say that the first global war "started" at Versailles in 1871, when there Jan. 28 between the French and Prussians armistice was signed, and in the February 26, 1871 in the Mirror Gallery Palace of Versailles was signed preliminary Franco-Prussian world. On behalf of the German governor William I signed a contract Chancellor Otto Bismarck, and the name of the French people — the chief executive of the French Republic, Adolphe Thiers.
Versailles — is generally a symbolic place. Louis XIV gave the small village of brilliant residence. However, the construction of the complex of palaces had to ruin thousands of lives fighter and farmers, 10 of millions of livres. Versailles became the emblem of endless prazdnichka, but for the beautiful façade and the glitter of gold was hidden for hundreds of selected poverty, suffering and death of millions of ordinary people. Versailles — is a kind of concentrated image of world order by western standards. In 1768, the Republic of Genoa passed here in France Corsica. In 1783, the Treaty of Versailles contract confirmed the independence of the United States. Help Yankees went sideways France: the money was very upset, which is one of the prerequisites of the French Revolution of 1789, in which the active role taken veterans — "the Americans." Gorgeous paced the halls of the palace French ruler Napoleon, immediately showed off his nephew Napoleon III. 2nd empire Third Napoleon fell after the surrender of the French army at Sedan.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1871. was an epoch-making significance not only for France, which again became a republic, and Prussia, which created the majority of the German Empire German lands, and for the world. In Russian historiography, this war was somewhat biased attitude: appeared that the main culprit was the war of Prussia and Bismarck himself who provoked the war by removing a few phrases of the so-called. Emsskoy dispatches. Was created in the image according to which the militant, brutal Prussia and Bismarck to pursue a policy of German unification "blood and iron", attacked the peaceful and burgeoning France, depriving Alsace and Lorraine. But in reality, the French society reached a desire to wage war, Paris wanted to tap the still Prussia in 1866, during the Austro-Prussian War, but before he could, the Austrians were defeated very quickly. Most of the French deputies voted for the war against Prussia and France declared war on the German government June 19, 1870, Ivan Turgenev, is closely associated with the French public, praised France's behavior as "audacious and frivolous." The government of Napoleon III wished to join the French in the Rhineland, in Cologne, Aachen, Trier. French generals and the public were convinced of victory. The French press is assured in the future triumph of the army. Some Marc Fournier gave a very good mood of French society: "At last we know lust beating. Let the blood flowing streams of the Prussians, waterfalls, with the flood of divine wrath! Let the bastard who only dare to say the word "peace" will be immediately shot like a dog and thrown into the gutter. " Was not limited to words, began beating the Germans, who lived in France. Special decree of the Germans who lived in the country, driven out.
Terrible defeat suffered by France in the war, which was almost all due to recklessness, lightheadedness French government has not led to a rethinking of their own weaknesses, mistakes and miscalculations, and the idea of "revenge against boshami" (Boches — an insulting name of the Germans in France). The French do not take into account that almost all war Of 1870-1871. was for the Germans "sacred" — they rose up against the old enemy, which is up to the Thirty Years' War, headed for the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648, the German legal confirmation of fragmentation on the mass of small kingdoms and principalities. At the same time the French Alsace torn away from Germany. More than two hundred years, Germany was fragmented state where the contradictions of German ruler played majestic power. No wonder even decades after the battle Sedanskoy (1 September 1870) German Chancellor von Bulow, speaking Nov. 14, 1906 in the Reichstag, recalled: "The Peace of Westphalia made France and Germany destroyed."
In general, the unification of Germany, which prevented France, was a progressive step. Millions of Germans were freed from feudal, began to live in a united, strong power. Germany has included in its limits of Alsace and Lorraine not only on the right of the strong, and the historic law, for example, the city of Strasbourg was a possession Alemanov that settled the Alsace at the turn of the century 4-5. At the end of the 5th century Germanic tribe Franks subdued Alemanov own power. Section of Charlemagne's empire stateliness of his grandchildren practically initiated the creation of the French and German kingdoms. In 870, according to the agreement Mersenskomu Louis German received Alsace, which became part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German civilization as the western part of the duchy of Swabia (Allemann). The army of King Louis XIV of France conquered the city in 1681, and Risviksky world in 1697 confirmed the transition of the town under the authority of France. As a result, we can say that these disputed lands equal rights were the Germans and the French.
The collapse of the second French empire gave primacy in Europe the Germans. Our homeland during this period was neutral, but peace-loving to Berlin. Friendship between the Russian and Prussian came after the Battle of Nations at Leipzig, where Russian and Prussian soldiers broke the power of the army of Napoleon. In the upcoming alliance that sealed the Holy Alliance and the steady increase in mutual trade and economic ties. Prussia (Germany) and our home were natural allies in Europe. Not forgotten in St. Petersburg and the role of France in the Crimean War.
Almost Franco-Prussian War marked the beginning of the modern history of the world, because the world has come a new powerful factor in his conversion — German Empire. January 18, 1871 in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles Bismarck and William I announced the development of the German Empire. It included not only the country's North German Confederation, and Bavaria and the rest of South German countries. Almost half a century after the position of 2-powers drastically changed. Germany was defeated in World War I and the wall of the Hall of Mirrors witnessed the humiliation of German civilization. At Versailles was pee Versailles peace treaty in 1919.
About this time has developed quite another important factor in global politics — money, bank capital-intensive spliced with trade and economic life of the capitalist world and managing them (the so-called. "Financial International"). The interests of capital are set policy majestic powers. Western countries seized areas across the planet, that provid
e the industry a cheap natural resources, population with food, colonial products and make sales market. The British Prime Minister Robert Gascoyne-Cecil Salisbury explained the latest colonial policy of the country as follows: "Before, we were practically masters of Africa, without need to install there protectorates or something similar — just by virtue of the fact that we are ruled by the sea." Britain now had to formally consolidate its presence and expand ownership, since it does not make it the English took their place to other predators.
Need to take into account the social pressure. First 1% of the XX century the "American Nation" had 47% of the public wealth. Could come to such a time that the "most free country," people would have tired to work from dawn to dusk providing a handful of rich people. A similar situation occurred in the United Kingdom, France and other advanced countries. Not the case in France, the collapse of the second empire first led to the establishment of the Third Republic did not, and the Paris Commune. Hope workers were shot dead by government forces. May 1, 1886 Chicago workers staged a strike and staged a demonstration demanding the eight-hour working day or. In return, they received nine grams of lead. The ruling class was to channel the social energy. War appropriate for these purposes well. Her training and course dramatically accelerated the turnover of coal iron, copper, cotton, food, doing the latest and restored an old infrastructure. Part of the population, with more politically active, could be "relocated" to the cemetery.
South American capital first went on the road repartition of colonies and spheres of influence. In 1893, the Americans took over the Hawaiian Islands. In 1898, the United States seized Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam and the Philippines peninsula. South American writer and journalist William Whyte wrote: "When the Spaniards surrendered in Cuba and have allowed us to capture Puerto Rico and the Philippines, the United States at this intersection turned onto the road, driven by world domination. On earth was seeded South American imperialism. We have been condemned to a new way of life. " That's when the Americans be successfully used provocation to start a war, accusing the opponent in anger, and by the look the defending party. South American ship "Maine" was blown up by the Spanish Tipo. Later it turned out that the ship was blown up from the inside.
U.S. elite began to consider themselves the world's elite, but previously it was still far away. British Lord Curzon in 1892, said: "Afghanistan, the trans-Caspian region, Persia — this is for me the cells chessboard on which the party played out, rate it — world domination." It does not increase greatly, then Britain was a world power: the early 20th century, the British had 33 million square kilometers, which lived 368 million. Canada, South Africa, Egypt and the Suez Canal, India, Australia and Bimbo Zealand submitted to the English crown. France, though, and suffered a terrible defeat in the war with the Germans and paid indemnity Berlin impressive, but had the second largest colonial empire — 11 million square kilometers with a population of 50 million. Almost a third of the Black continent read in French.
On the planet are almost no free countries and lands, except the western states. Formally are independent was only the Ottoman Empire, Persia, Afghanistan, China and Siam. Well, there might and main acting agents and the capital of the Western powers. House was a Russian empire. Our homeland along without colonies — she even refused to include in its territory in Antarctica open Russian wayfarers (had every right to do), and studied the land Mikluho-Maclay. Land that has been incorporated into the Russian Federation in the Caucasus and Central Asia became Russian. But St. Petersburg did not put serious obstacles in the capital of the western empire, eventually carried the country significant economic loss. Our homeland was becoming dependent financially, technologically. Only deposits of "black gold" Baku brought their owners big state. Oilmen just bathed in luxury, building palaces of gold plates, making a tank made of platinum, having hired the protection of the authoritative Caucasians and export of beautiful women. Ruthlessly exploited the workers, and in 1913 received the empire fuel crisis, oil fell compared with 1901 to 2 million tons. Oilmen to force up prices, canned new fields and cut on the old creation, referring to the "natural depletion."
United States at this time prepared to press freedom in Central and South America, the Panama Canal zone. But the absolute masters 2-Americas Yankees have not yet become. Americans have a great economic power, but did not have a massive fleet and an army, without which they could not be considered as a principal player on the world stage. Well, the Europeans have enough capital in the same Brazilian steel roads are built, in the main, to the French, German, Belgian and British capitals. Because States have tried to push the principles of the policy of "open doors" and "equal opportunity", it gave them an advantage over the more feeble economies rivals.
In the Western world had as many as three contenders for world domination: England, United States and Germany (and of France can not be discounted entirely.) German imperialism was based on a clever alignment of militarism on work and talent of German scientists, engineers and workers. Since 1884, starting the German colonial conquests: Togo, Cameroon, Marshall Islands. Established German South-West and East Africa. In Oceania there Bismarck Archipelago and the Earth ruler Wilhelm. At the end of the 19th century, the Germans included in the own empire Caroline, Mariana Islands and the western group of islands of Samoa. German Reich was created exclusively in 1871, but by the beginning of XX century, Germans have made a third colonial empire. Germany and came in third place for the export of capital, almost catching up with France.
In the world was about $ 600 billion. Franks securities. The share of the United Kingdom accounted for 142 billion., USA — 132 billion., France — 110 billion., Germany — 98 billion., Russian Federation — 31 billion., Austria-Hungary — 24 billion., Italy — 14 billion., The Netherlands — 12, 5000000000., land of the rising sun 12 billion.
At the turn of 19-20 centuries, all the major players of the future global conflict merged into a close-knit coalition of anti-Chinese. Celestial Empire was at that time a semi-colony, which was not only robbed the lazy, especially the British and the Americans were different. Fleeced the country with such arrogance that soon the Chinese broke and revolted. It was headed by an organization with a very soft-spoken title: "Fist in the name of justice and reconciliation" (later "Detachments of justice and reconciliation"). The uprising was doomed, Chinese farmers, artisans, small traders and workers fought more cool weapon, but against them was "great unity" majestic powers, punitive well-trained troops, equipment with the latest technology. In the intervention took the role of Germany, Italy, England, the United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan and the Russian Empire. British Vice-Admiral Edward Hobart Seymour led the joint Anglo-American squadron, and then the Naval Brigade, which attacked Beijing. Commander in Chief of the international force was appointed German Field Marshal Alfred von Waldersee. The power of global capital over China was restored.
To be continued …