Versailles from 1871 to Versailles in 1919. Part 2

Versailles from 1871 to Versailles in 1919.  Part 2

Mir came in the 20th century with tremendous hope, indeed the progress of science and technology has promised much much. People believed that education and science will give them peace century, where there will be protracted and bloody wars, like several wars against France, which began in 1792 and lasted from small breaks until 1815. But they are very wrong. By the beginning of the century were accumulated serious contradictions that can be resolved only by the war.

France wanted a rematch, but one she did not have a chance against the German Empire. France had two centuries quite centralized country (plus a few centuries, one of the country), but Germany was able to get around to it on economic performance in just two decades. Paris preferred to be a "loan shark", not "factory" of Europe. Well, Britain lost its status as the 'workshop of the world ". For example, in 1913 the U.S. smelted 31.3 million tons of steel in Germany — 17.3 million in the UK — 7.7 million British became a "victim" of their own tremendous colonial possessions and the associated wealth. It was much easier to siphon off the wealth of resources overseas dominions, than to invest in the development of the British economy actually. "The burden of snow-white man" in the business world was beneficial, but Britain itself evenly hirel, new branches of industry developed slowly.

As a result, became the first European power Germany. The French and British capital (well, and South American) had two options: to cooperate with the Second Reich, evenly losing its position in the world or try to crush it, to subordinate their own. For France, this cooperation meant submission, the role of "second fiddle" in Europe. Paris chose the path of confrontation and eventually became a subordinate power in respect of the Anglo-Saxons (although the French and the British were serious historical enemies). London also could not openly oppose Berlin, because he began to find power — "ram", which was to crush the power of Germany. In the end, France and the United Kingdom found a country that would be able to withstand the blows of German cases and lead them to victory. They decided to wage war on the German Empire "until the last Russian soldier."

Was it profitable RF wage war with Germany? Anglophile court frankolyubivaya party and the public thought so. Since the time of Peter I Russian foreign policy was focused on European squabbles. But from the standpoint of the public interest, more profitable areas of the expansion of the empire was the South and East. Not in vain the British feared that Russia will occupy a strong position in Persia, India, China and Korea. The British could not offer serious resistance if our homeland dared to make these areas central to its own external policy. East and south of the country we were neighbors. In addition, the existing ownership of the empire were so voluminous that the government should direct more attention to the refinement of, than to climb into the European conflict. In the Russian Empire were not developed North, Siberia and the Far East, and Central Asia. Our homeland the whole world is tremendous, which at that time did not work out and did not disclose a hundredth bit of their own wealth. Kaiser Wilhelm II was absolutely right when he raised the alarm on his ship "Admiral Atlantic welcomes the Admiral of the Pacific Ocean." The strategic alliance of German and Russian empires could bring to the world a very different future, if victory Anglo-Saxons (with the participation of French on the sidelines).

The confrontation with Germany, France and Great Britain (with the inevitable role of the United States) could give the Russian Federation are the "twenty years" peaceful development, about which read Pyotr Stolypin. In addition, the People's aristocratic system of Germany and RF (Especially when the inevitable development and improvement) were more healthy order for the peoples of the planet, if usurious-parasitic model of the UK, the U.S. and France. Our homeland and Germany were the states that rely more on their own efforts, and not on the plunder of colonies. Germany made a majestic genius of its scientists, the creative work of engineers, workers, teachers, and not the millions killed by the natives of North America or India.

We should not forget the contribution of the Germans in Russian politics, military affairs, science and the economy. We can remember a lot of German by birth, but Russian in spirit and destiny of the German names that have participated in the creation of Russian empire. Midst of them, Russian traveler, geographer, botanist, founder of permafrost Alexander F. Middendorf (1815 — 1894). Middendorf during his own expedition to northern Siberia and the Far East in the years 1842-1845. became a pioneer and explorer plateau tableland, Taimyr Peninsula, the North Siberian lowland plains of the Amur-Zeya, the lower part of the basin of the Amur River, and a number of other areas. The list of famous Russian Germans and Hristianovich physicist Heinrich Lenz (1804 — 1865), he discovered the law of induction, "Joule and Lenz." When Catherine II of Russia's land stretched settlers from the Palatinate, Westphalia, Bavaria, Swabia, Saxony and other German lands. By the end of the 19th century in Russia lived almost 1.5 million Germans. The German Question in Russia had both pros and cons (for example, "Norman theory" made by German historians). In general, keep in mind that the German settlement in Russia were not a "cancerous tumor" and the sources of problems, and examples of wise management and life. The Germans brought the empire is much more useful than harmful. The Russian and German perfectly complement each other.

What gave RF victory over Germany in alliance with Britain and France? Empire received the Polish lands, which led to the strengthening of the Polish question. Petersburg promised the Bosporus and the Dardanelles, but give them the British and the French were not going to. A more robust European policy Petersburg fit into three words: "Peace with Germany." Peace on the western border, which covered the allied Germany, the Russian Federation allowed to solve numerous internal problems, develop the Caucasus, Central Asia, Siberia, the Far East and the Russian North. We could keep the economic expansion in the Asia-Pacific region. No wonder naiumneyshy 19th century politician Otto von Bismarck beheld the future of Russian-German relations through peaceful. It is clear that the differences between countries were, but they were not of a basic nature, lie more in the area of the economy, if the policy. Reasonable thing to smooth out the corners and build friendships.

But Alexander II began holding anti-German policy. He claimed the lower limit of indemnity of Berlin, the Germans were planning to get to the French. In 1875, Our homeland has suspended Germany, which ventured preventive war with France. As a result, when our country after the Russian-Turkish war, faced with opposition from the British and Austro-Hungarian diplomacy, Germany does not support it (which is not surprisingly, Bismarck solved the national tasks). In fact, in the final of the Berlin Congress does not affect the German chancellor, and the secret Reyhshtadskoe agreement signed between St. Petersburg and Vienna, July 8, 1876 According to him, Austria undertook to remain neutral if Our homeland will not creat
e "a large Slavic state." It is necessary to take into account the factor of "benefit" from the fact that our homeland is constantly climbed to the Balkan difficulties. Suffice it to recall the policy of "appreciative" of Bulgaria, which freed the Russian bayonets.

London even then skillfully to quarrel with the Russian Germans. Zeal to the permanent weakening of the Russian Federation in general was a constant line of England. The calculation was far, for decades to come. In 1879, Alexander II and William I fell out completely. In 1887, Berlin once again thinking about the defeat of France, but is now on its way there is the government of Alexander III. In addition, the birthplace of our first rule of Alexander III has stepped up the construction of strategic railways in Poland. Objectively it was anti-German move, especially given the fact that our homeland is very needed in the construction of railroads in the center of the country, not Western "Borderland". Immediately to the RF activated pro-French and anti-German circles. Very alarmed Berlin and "Parisian speech" General Skobeleva, where he collapsed on Germany as the enemy of.

Lumen in the relationship 2-majestic powers became so-called. "Reinsurance treaty" of 18 June 1887, which was made through the efforts of Bismarck and brothers Shuvalov. Berlin and St. Petersburg, pledged not to attack each other and had to remain neutral during the war with at least one of which a third majestic power, except in cases of the German attack on France or Russia on the Austria-Hungary. In addition, the German side pledged to provide assistance to Russian Empire diplomatically, if the Russian government considers it necessary "to take over the defense of the entrance to the Black Sea" in order to "save the key to his own empire."

Our home was not going to attack itself Austro-Hungarian Empire, because the obligation Petersburg was given simple. The mistake of the Russian government was to defend France. The defeat of France, the Germans did not stop us, quite the contrary. The imminent strengthening of Germany at the expense of France would have caused serious apprehension in Austria-Hungary, Italy and the UK. Germany needed a rear measured as Russia. Unfortunately, for more Alexander III did not go. Although there was a real opportunity to make a strategic alliance 2-majestic powers. Union could become the basis for the proposal of Peter Shuvalov. Russian salting Berlin offered a free hand against France — in exchange for political support in the capture of Russian Bosporus and the Dardanelles.

To be continued …

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