"Finance International" afraid of strong Russian-German alliance, and more than anything else. Alliance Germany and Russia did not feasible huge European war that was to crush the "obsolete" the monarchy and clear the "field" for the construction of Anglo-Saxon world order. Withstand a military force such an alliance was almost unreal — the Russian and the German army was the best in the world (it was the rapid growth and naval power 2-Powers). Britain and the U.S. had massive land armies, and the French troops inferior in strength and skills of the German.
France, as a concerned party rushed to handle Russia to conclude a direct military alliance against Germany. And the French are willing not only the Union, and to determine the military strategy of. Emperor Alexander III hesitated, the foreign minister of Gears was strongly opposed to the alliance with France. The fate of the future of the world depended on the decision of Petersburg. A huge role in the conclusion of the Franco-Russian alliance played a money judgment disposition. As a lender French Rothschilds Russian government promised to arrange another loan. After Russian Jews they financed much of railway construction in the Russian Empire and a large part of the banking system. Suddenly, Alphonse Rothschild said with delight to stay in Europe, Russian government loan, but can not do so because of the persecution of Jews in Russia. Russian friends Rothschild hinted sir, that if Alexander will enter into an alliance with France, then an ally of the Russian Federation will make an indulgence. In the end, concluded an alliance with France, the French fleet with a "friendship visit" visited Kronstadt. Loans given and the Russian Federation in the summer of 1892 in the capital of the empire was the first meeting of the heads of the Russian and the French general staff. By the beginning of 1894 has been signed and ratified by the Franco-Russian military convention. Now, starting a war with the French Republic, the German empire automatically received and the war with Russia.
Break the Russian-German affairs was hard. Two powers attributed the strong dynastic and economic ties. But were coming from all directions. Wife of the emperor Alexander III was Dane Danish Dagmar (Maria Feodorovna), which usually refers to the German militant. Anti-German position was an influential Russian Minister of Finance Sergei Witte Yulievich, and he was a divorced spouse Jewish Nurok Matilda Ivanovna, the first wife — Lisanevich, also a friend of the Rothschilds of Paris and St. Petersburg banker Adolf Yulyevich Rothstein. Sergei Witte and his trusted bankers successfully perceived the French loans made concessions. Immediately Witte was hard to Berlin, which provided the RF customs of war with Germany and mutual losses, rising distrust.
Middle Assistant Minister of Foreign Affairs of NK Girs Count Vladimir Nikolaevich Lamsdorf June 1, 1895 noted in his diary: "We have spoiled our business with Germany and adjacent to a more or less long time have removed any possibility of common action with her confidence in the criteria, all of which in order to look and feel of the French, who are trying to discredit us to the end, chain only to unite with each other and keep independent of his own will. " Relations between Petersburg and Berlin are not overtaken Russia's national interests and the interests of very different forces, aggressive Russian and German peoples. Suffice it to recall that at the beginning of the 20th century in the German Empire was the third part of the Russian export: grain, sugar, oil, meat, wood, etc. Our home should have a quarter of German exports, the main machinery, equipment and chemical products. Almost by Germany was the modernization of the Russian industry. German sales in Russia developed the Russian economy, providing a measured increase in the German economy. Russian sales of products to Germany crepe Russian ruble.
Witte so slowed renegotiation of Russian-German trade and industry of the contract, that the Kaiser had to write a personal letter to Emperor Nicholas II, which asked to do away with red tape. The contract was extended, the Germans provided the RF large loan. But in the general policy that did not change nothing. Lamsdorf, becoming minister of foreign affairs at the end of 1900, with the personal pro-German position, supported Petersburg line on the Franco-Russian alliance.
Witte's "distinguished" not only in the areas of convergence RF and France, and on other fronts. Before World War I Russian Empire only required to pay half a billion in French year. In order to pay had to take out new loans outside. The total amount of debt RF France have gained a large amount — 27 billion. francs. With all of this country's economy experienced a constant shortage of funds. Many put Witte credit for the introduction of the appeal of gold in Russia (in textbooks — the introduction of the gold standard is considered to be a positive reform). But this reform has led to leakage of gold from Russia. One of the ideas was invited distributors Witte of Austria-Hungary Rothstein, who was in charge of this area practically. In view the situation was brilliantly: the gold in store empire was huge, gold backing of the Russian ruble was about 120%. But to go to the gold standard had to hoard gold with the help of external loans. Support the success was only possible by new loans. West sucking Russian gold, the country had no money to lend state industry.
Witte is associated with the name and the introduction of the liquor monopoly in Russia. This innovation is exciting from the standpoint of social nuance, similar to Gorbachev's reform (both reforms have led to an increase in social tension), and the money side of things. Through the efforts of Witte's budget was "drunk" parasitic actually replenished almost 30% due to the liquor monopoly, rather than the growth of production in the country.
In the same period there was an opportunity to approach the UK and Germany. Joseph Chamberlain began to think about an alliance with Germany and held talks with German politicians. Wilhelm II said of the English sentence, Nicholas II, and asked what he could get in return from St. Petersburg, if Berlin refuses British offer. It was clear that the German Kaiser wanted to find out whether our homeland depart from the alliance with France. In general, and the alliance of Great Britain and Germany was unlikely. In England came strengthening international, almost anti-national trends in foreign policy. What was profitable in English, French, German and Austrian Rothschilds, South American Warburg was not profitable to the British people. Opposition to Robert Salisbury, associated with the Rothschilds and friendly busines
s relations, put an end to the project approach the UK and Germany.
Anglo-German contradictions were, of course, is obvious. Germany closely Britain, as good as new "workshop of the world". German exports grew so rapidly that by the end of the 19th century, the British surprise and annoyance gave way to horror. The British and German interests clash in South Africa, the Ottoman Empire, Persia and China. Pan-German alliance was set up strongly anti-English (he, however, was generally opposed to all states). At the same time, the United Kingdom and Germany have many common interests, war leading to mutual destruction, they were not needed. The main competitor of the United Kingdom (the state, not transnational) and Germany were the United States.
In 1900, almost 75% of South American exports went to Europe, and in 1913 — already 59%. The basic premise of the displacement of American products was the strengthening of the German industry. And the United States was a serious handicap in time, and the Yankees do not have to waste a lot of money on the maintenance of the armed forces, to build a strong fortress defense zones, etc. In this Makar, Germany closely not only Britain, but the United States. American financial and industrial elite (the U.S. political elite has always solved the puzzles of financial-industrial groups) wanted a war, and in Europe and the role of mandatory Germany and Russia. Defeat in this war were States. In 1-x, war was not in their area. In-2-x, they are "late" with the entry into the conflict, getting a lot of political, financial and industrial benefits. B-3, all contestants had to be destroyed or very weak. The risk has been reduced to zero, but the victory is calculated with mathematical precision. The United States had become the newest headquarters' financial International. " Become a debtor of the UK lender European countries.
But for that to start a world war it was necessary to isolate Germany from the Russian Federation and the right not to allow the Germans to agree with the British. This task was be successfully resolved. In Germany, after leaving the scene of Bismarck, has gone through several chancellors — Caprivi (1890-1894), Hohenlohe (1894-1900), Bulow (1900-1909), but after all was the "gray eminence" ("great unknown"), the German foreign policy Baron Friedrich August von Holstein. He played a huge role in the dismissal of Chancellor Bismarck. Following the resignation of Bismarck Holstein made particular adversary renegotiating the contract of "reinsurance" with Russia. Directed against Russia "new course" Chancellor von Caprivi was practically course Holstein. He also ripped off (from Germany) The proposed Anglo-German rapprochement. Holstein convinced Kaiser Wilhelm II, which London would never agree to an agreement with Russia and France. In 1914, when the world went to war in the same way provoked the Berlin British Minister of Foreign Affairs Edward Grey, assuring the Germans that Britain remain neutral, although at the time she was preparing to declare war on Germany. When Chancellor Bulow in foreign policy the German Empire all solved litters Baron Holstein in the fields diplomatically dispatches. If he wrote: "Cheap!", The project cast off to the side. Holstein controlled all the important diplomatic mission, led his correspondence with ambassadors. Holstein led antibismarkovskuyu and therefore anti-Russian line.
A fascinating feature of the Baron, which opened its essence, was the fact that he took his own diplomatic awareness to play the stock market. Behind him stood the interests of the huge capital, "Financial International." "The great unknown" was particularly confidant of international forces. In fact, he did not direct the policy of the German Empire, and in Germany it necessary to direct the course of bolshennomu capital. The basic objectives were two: the gap in Germany and Russia, and to prevent the alliance of London and Berlin. Otto von Bismarck, albeit late, understood the Baron Holstein and warn the German ruler of the "man in the eyes of a hyena." But it was too late, Holstein intrigued and ran outside Germany's policy until 1906 without difficulty. Well, after the resignation of (anger Kaiser was called the Moroccan crisis), Holstein before his death in 1909, was the personal adviser to Chancellor von Bülow and contributed to the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909., Which was the prelude to a major war.
"Holstein" and "Witte" (their copy in the late 20th early 21st centuries — Chubais) were not only in the Russian and German empires. "Agents of influence" led to war Britain, France, Austria-Hungary and the USA.