If we talk about the school rangers, the historically they have appeared on the American countryside yet in 1756. The founder of it was Major Rogers of Britain. The main objective was to Ranger units against the Redskins, as permanent troops were unable to cope with them. The modern history of the Rangers began during the second world war, when it was formed five battalions.
Today, all the Rangers brought in one of the 75th regiment of the armed forces of the United States of America, which has an estimated 1830 people and consists of three battalions. Each battalion has three combat and one Headquarters Company. The main objective of "black berets" is to carry out subversive activities in close assault enemy's rear, and therefore training should be in their respective.
In order to become a ranger, you need to pass special courses that are going on day or 72. The main purpose of these courses is to prepare the assault team commander, which will be able to act decisively, even in very difficult combat criteria. The whole programm is to test the strength, endurance and courage of the candidates. It contains items such as push-ups, slip-lining on the set distance, the implementation of more than 35 high-speed gymnastic exercises, rappelling from a platform and the next falling into the water with a seven-meter height, swimming in the equipment and uniforms, bridging beams, located on the a height of 20 meters, rappelling from the mountains. In addition, students will cover a distance of 3.2 kilometers less than 12 minutes, for 4 days to make the same amount of forced marches length of 10 km of cross-country with a load of 18 kg and 20 kg (two shots). With all of this standard for every march-throw is only 1.5 hours.
The course is divided into several steps. The first step has a duration of 338 hours. At the initial step candidates undergo initial training in orienteering, physical training, working with the radio station, adjusting the air and artillery fire, blasting the case, first aid.
Step mountain training lasts 309 hours. The focus of this period is given to development of climbing equipment and long passages through mountainous terrain.
3rd step extends 376 hours. At this time, the students are trained for combat, detect locations of the enemy forces, reserves, nuclear missiles. For the period of the course of military divide into pairs. According to experts, this should help to overcome the obstacles to successful and create a spirit of mutual support.
Completed a course taking tests. Those who have successfully passed all the tests (which is usually about half of all candidates), the ranger receives a certificate and a golden-yellow-black stripe with the words «Ranger», as a dark beret.
South American marines appeared during the struggle for independence. At the current time it has 226 thousand people. Its composition has three operating divisions and one spare. In each of the 3 divisions has its own subversive and intelligence team of frogmen, in carrying out tasks which comes nestled study area prior to the operation. Sneaking a longer preparation and hard. A candidate may be at least some marine, who is in the rank of corporal, serving in the Marine Corps more than 3-5 years, and has excellent properties.
In the first step of selection candidates pass the physical test, which is conducted under the three-mile cross, pull-ups, sit-ups and obstacle course at a time. In addition, it is necessary to test the swimming — in shoes and clothes for 17 minutes to overcome the 450 meters, then a minute to go in the water with an M-16 in hand. Then, after a little break, candidates must make a forced march lasting 2.5 hours with a knapsack, which weighs 22.5 kilograms. After that, students must pass a written exam and an interview of aptitude with veterans of Naval Intelligence, which will determine who is fit for the service. Qualifying examination is held once a month. Usually, it held only 3-4 out of 20 applicants.
Those who managed to qualify, a few steps forward to training, which lasts two years. The structure of this training is allocated personal training, training in the training unit, training in the expeditionary forces, and training activities for the deployment of combat units and training operations units after deployment.
Personal training of candidates last six months. During this period, students uchyat Strategy and Technology patrols, tactical techniques infantry, as they go through the full course of airborne training. In addition, candidates are exploring breathing apparatus closed and open loop, take courses of behavior in captivity and survival, gains the ability to correct behavior during questioning, organization behavior of other prisoners in order to counteract the enemy, and in addition, studying the methods of escape and survival in feral nature. Also during the 2 months training course held the Rangers, the Rangers, a mountain guide, in which the cadets receive climbing ability and survival in the mountains in winter. In addition, candidates will also make parachute jumps, pass medical training, trained shooting.
After that starts the second step, which also takes 6 months. During this period, the students learn a distant radio, namely, learn Morse code, satellite connection. Then comes the period of amphibious training, which comes to learning abilities conduct hydrographic research, development of the landing of the submarine, located in a submerged position, landing. In addition, the training is conducted light diving training, guidance aviation, study abroad guns and shooting out of it is high-altitude parachute training with the planning.
This step ends up performing a few exercises in which students demonstrate the knowledge acquired. After that, they are distributed by the expeditionary units. And again, in over half a year, they are studying the methods of direct action tasks. They complete programs from training courses in the case of demolition, to simulate interaction with aviasilami, action in the criteria of the town. Those units that are engaged in counterterrorism activities, additionally trained for the release of hostages, landing on the ships from helicopters.
Next step — the deployment of combat units — and continues for six months. Commands sent for training in the area of western Pacific or the same in the Persian Gulf irrespective next destination. Exercises are conducted in accordance with the plans of combat t
raining of the unit.
Intensity of training are different and special forces mission aircraft the United States of America, known worldwide as the "Green Berets". This elite unit whose history began in 1952, and which are designed for organizing and conducting sabotage, guerrilla and terrorist operations. In the middle of the main tasks that make these units can be distinguished conduct special reconnaissance, organizing the fight against terrorism, conducting search and rescue operations, a role in humanitarian and peacekeeping operations, conducting the fight against drug trafficking, demining, as the specific conduct of hostilities.
All military personnel who wish to get into the unit, must pass qualifying courses of special forces, which are held in the school of special methods of warfare named after John F. Kennedy. This rate has remained constant over the past 10 years. Preparation of the future of "green berets" consists of 3 steps. In the first step is carried out evaluation and selection of candidates. The opportunity to enroll in the unit are only those soldiers who have served or are serving, and passed the course the young fighter. With all this, you must be prepared for the fact that at any stage of any of the candidates can be certified and sent to the former place of service. Candidates are selected by means of physical and mental testing, because the health of the cadet must be beyond reproach. As part of the physical test conducted forced marches of endurance and speed, in full gear and sportswear, pull-ups, swimming, sit-ups, push-ups, obstacle course, jumping on his heels. Psychological testing includes a test to determine the characteristics of temperament, speed of assessment of the situation and adapt to it, to the intellectual development and literacy.
In addition, at this point, the students also get a basic knowledge of topography, strategies, development of the abilities of command. The whole step lasts 3 weeks, and during that time the cadets banned from leaving the military base. No candidates and weekends.
Second step — this is the main course, qualifying. During this period, students are trained to field engineer training, military medicine and first aid, and means of communication, learning weapons and ammunition. Lectures and workshops interspersed with holding classes on fighting, shooting, survival, the use of scuba and skydiving. At the end of the course conducted tests and exams. The entire second step lasts approximately six months.
On the 3rd step, each student chooses for himself one of the specialties for a more profound study. In addition, they are also engaged in research of the 1st of vserasprostranennyh more languages in the world, or those which may be required for the upcoming service. Great attention is given to listening comprehension and speaking practice. This step may take about 17-23 weeks, it depends on the degree of difficulty of the chosen language. Together with the language, students also learn the cultural traditions of a country whose language is chosen.
At the end of the course all the "Green Berets" divided into regional groups, but certainly once a year they go through fees in which to pass the aptitude test, also engaged in research of new products military equipment.
Underwater saboteurs naval forces of the USA, or, as they are usually called — "Navy SEALs" — along with a special unit of the "Delta" is the basic combat unit of the U.S. Army. The main task of this department is to carry out sabotage and rescue operations.
At the current time for those who want to get to the service's elite squad swimmers, saboteurs, you need to pass a special course which is divided into three main steps.
In the first step are training for running, exercise and swimming. With all this testing every day or becoming more difficult. Every week there is a race over a distance of four miles at a time, cadets also have to overcome the obstacle course, two-mile swim with fins. But these four weeks — only just training to the so-called "hell week", the fifth week, when tested for strength of all the physical and mental strength of cadets. For now, the cadets have to travel up to 200 miles, conduct in physical exercise for 20 hours a day. At the dream will only be given only 4 hours to 5 days. After such testing is actually 90 per cent of the candidates lost the desire to continue learning.
Later in the period of 3 weeks, we study the methods and techniques of hydrographic research.
Seven weeks for fighter physical training are conducted in water. Great attention is being given to the mastery of light diving combat gear.
As for the next eight weeks are conducted reinforced ground training, during which the candidates are taught the methods of reconnaissance, the use of guns, blasting operations. Also last training in swimming, running and overcoming obstacles, but the time to overcome them, is further reduced. The focus at this stage is given to the study of land navigation, abseiling from a height strategy for the use of small units, devices, underwater and ground explosions and the use of guns.
Reinforced training and is in the unit of special forces "Delta" — military unit, which is engaged in the fight against terrorism, holds shares of direct action, and in addition, conducts covert operations and release the hostages.
In subdivision, typically, candidates are gaining from the Army Special Forces and Rangers squad. The selection of candidates is carried out by the standard procedure: they are all tested for physical training — push-ups, sit-ups, running for 3 kilometers, also swimming in the 100-meter distance with a complete outfit. Then inspect the cadets on the ability to navigate the terrain. This step consists of a night hike of 29 km from the computation weighing 19 kilograms. Followed by a complex psychological testing.
Those who have successfully passed the selection, take a course operatives unit, which takes 6 months. During this time, they learn the ways of conducting counter-intelligence and counter-terrorism. Also provided a thorough fire preparation, which contains several steps. In the first step uchyat operatives shooting at static targets with a small distance. When achieved the highest accuracy rate, are trained to move around shooting at targets. Then there is a fire training course, during which the practiced ability to fire in the room. At first, all the exercises are made one at a time with a constant increase of up to 4 people. After that, the room having a target-hostage.
In the subsequent step training — engineering and explosive — operatives uchyat as true under
mine cars, buildings, safes, make improvised explosive devices. Training is often combined with exercise voedinyzhdy other U.S. intelligence agencies, namely, the FBI and the Marine Corps Special Forces.
In addition, in the course of preparation of "Delta" comes to training sniper case, abilities conspiracy, the use of signal waves, surveillance, methods of protection of fundamental municipal officials.
So Makar, analyzing the different ways to prepare the South American Special Forces units, it can be concluded that they all make identical tasks, to protect and maintain the security of their own country and its terrain.