Where have gone the Australian land

Where have gone the Australian land

Reading about a prosperous Australia, it is unrealistic to believe that this is actually a hassle-free continent evoked a nightmare on the people of British Isles and was listed as a propane place. Bimbo Holland … In 1644, Abel Tasman, a Dutch traveler, referred to as open land in the South Pacific. Almost 150 years in the world have used this title.

In 1688, William Dampier, a British pirate, writer and painter, the case came to the West Coast newest Holland. Returning home, he published a note about this trip. The British government became interested in the new lands. In 1699, William identified the ship, that he led an expedition to the shores of the continent — but he did not get along with the team and XO, and the journey ended with the fact that after a survey of the western coast of Holland newest ship crashed.

In 1768, preparations began for the great Pacific expedition under the James Cook. Swimming started in 1769. In the 1770 m was opened south-east coast of the continent, which would later be called Australia. Cook called him New South Wales — and gave the English crown.

New South Wales could only stay geographical discovery. So there was never a continent Australia, if not a revolution in North America and the formation of the United States. First XVIII century Britain passed a law that allowed a substitute for the death penalty for the guilty to be deported to the colonies of North America. Once a year, more than a thousand man sails away to prison for ocean. In 1776, the 13 American colonies gained their independence — and did not want to take the English criminals. England lost territories and tremendous in a new World, and the ability to send back unwanted people. The government had to find new places for hard labor. And while the guilty were sent to the bullpen floating in the Thames, eerie, by their terms. From the "floating houses" was such a stench that the British outrage knew no bounds. So after 20 years, remembered the opening of James Cook. Joseph Banks, Cook's companion, who became advisor to King George III, at a meeting of the British Parliament offered to send criminals specifically in the new land. And in 1786 it was decided to make the east coast of Australia, a place of exile and hard labor.

In the middle of the exiles were unsafe offenders, and wretched, condemned for a small fault

In the main obliged settlers were from the East End — the poorest part of London. More than 100 years, this area of the capital supplied the bulk of prisoners

Esther Abrahams — seven years of hard labor for stealing designs. Solomon Levy — eight years for stealing a box of tea. John Hill — seven years of hard labor for stealing a linen handkerchief. Elizabeth Beysson sentenced to death by hanging for stealing 7 yards of calico, commuted to seven years of hard labor. James Barlet — seven years of hard labor for stealing thousands of pounds of yarn. George Barsbi found guilty of insulting, stealing silk purse, a gold watch, 6 guineas — and sentenced to execution, which was changed to perpetual servitude. About 160 thousand man were sent to penal servitude for such "extra large" offenses. Theft in England at that time was listed as a terrible crime. In the XVIII century, found guilty of theft and were sentenced to deportation to Australia. Dame sentenced to 7-14 years in prison and exiled together with the children. Many offenders do not have gained 14 years of age. At one point, seven-year child was sent to perpetual servitude.

XVIII century England brought great social change. The industrial revolution has left many without the ability to survive. Address the issue of employment government did not want. Excessive investment in the creation of jobs and markets were considered economically unprofitable. Management of the country has decided to give the people a free choice of ways and means of survival. Last poverty has led to a horrible crime. To stop it, the authorities have introduced stringent punishment for small crimes. By the end of XVIII century, was executed for stealing a little more than 200 man. Sentenced to death for stealing at least some — no matter what was stolen. 1st 11-year-old boy was hanged for stealing a handkerchief.

"First fleet" for the establishment of the first colony of New South Wales consisted of 11 ships, and went in 1787. In January 1788 saves up to Australia Posada 850 convicts and 250 soldiers and officers. Behind him walked the other court. Soon in Australia a huge number of hard settlements. And guard and convicts arrived to an empty store, which had to equip and inhabit.

January 26, 1788 in Port Jackson was raised by an English flag and solemnly proclaimed the foundation newest colony. At the moment, this day is celebrated as a day Australia — The beginning of the modern history of the continent. The first governor of convict settlement in a new South Wales, was appointed Arthur Phillip. At the time he was 48 years old. He was an intelligent man with no small prosaic experience: seventeen years old he entered the Navy after eight years of service almost 30 years, was a farmer in the province, then returned to the Navy and fought in the war with France, year served the Portuguese crown (in the war with Spain), and then he was promoted to the rank of captain. The government has received very appropriate, by this man as governor newest colony. He was brave, sober and sustained. Besides, he had the most valuable quality — he was not stupid violent.

The exiles have seen in him is not the jailer, and a reasonable person, faithful to their oath and duty. Phillip was aware of its responsibilities as the establishment and maintenance of law and order in their territory. The governor introduced a strictly regimented work day — the conditions considerably the best for the majority of convicts than they were at home. Compliance with the rules of work he was looking in person. But at least some hard work — hard labor. Uselessness, of mandatory and burdening. A mode, albeit regulated, but tough. For trivial offenses — whip severe misconduct or disobedience to the authorities — death by hanging. Samples of the rebellion, escape, sabotage occurred frequently. The governor ruthlessly suppressed them. Flogging was mundane. The death penalty also was not something out of the ordinary.

To distract from the work of religious services were held constant. Go with convicts arrived, and chaplains.

Phillip did not once asked London to send professional artisans to organize life in the colony. In Australia, many who do not wish to go voluntarily. Free population was replenished only by ex-convicts and the officers and fighter protection. Has been adjusted only when a small comfort, began to arrive, and other citizens who wish to start the latest life away from home. The first group of "free men" came only after 5 years, in 1793. And more than 60 years, their share of Europeans in the middle of Australia was negligible. Exclusively in the middle of the XIX century in Australia flood of immigrants. The reason was very ordinariness — to found a colony of gold. For 10 years the "gold rush" of people from the UK has tripled. After the Polish uprising in 1863 in the colony came a huge number of Poles. On the map Australia You can find a lot of Polish words — for example, the highest mountain is named after Tadeusz Kosciuszko, the failed "dictator" of the Polish uprising of 1794 and the participant of the war for the independence of the United State
s. From 1868 to Australia's convict did not.

Evenly lay roads, build houses. New The settlement was named Sydney — after Lord, who signed a decree on the development of the colony. The governor participated in expeditions in the districts of this town. Every free man offered 30 acres of land (acre is approximately 2.5 hectares) — a huge area. These fields are treated specially assigned to them prisoners. The problem was solved by food.

Many convicts knew that after his release in Australia was waiting for them the best life, than in the UK. But before the colony was necessary to get started. In the horrific criteria: frequent crash, raw, dirty ship holds, in what had to be many months without light and air. Scurvy. On the road killed a hundred. Doctors on the ship was not. With the passage of time on ships, in particular those where prisoners were ladies, there were doctors. The mortality rate has decreased. When the ships were improved, and the trip was reduced from 7 to 4 months, the death rate has dropped even more.

Among those who made it to the place of exile and her safely departed, returned to the UK one. In fact, all decided to stay in the colony.

Many governors of New South Wales held principle that one should never remember about the criminal past a man released from prison. Need to give it a feel vsepolnotsennym member of society. That he knew he was exemplary conduct redeemed himself and became a decent human being. Freed allocated excavation sites. They were given to the prisoners on the field and help with the housework. After liberation, many "criminals" were very pochetaemymi citizens. Samuel Layfut founded the first clinic. William Redfren became a doctor. Francis Greenway built a lot of buildings in Sydney and districts. John Harris, who was sentenced for stealing silver spoons to the death penalty, which changed 14 years in prison, in 1793 — after only 5 years after arrival to prison — became the first Australian police officer.

But there were those governors, Sir Thomas Brisbane. Under him for singing, walking spirited enough, hard enough pushing the cart with stones convict received 50 lashes or 10 days in the chamber. Because of the closeness of the camera could barely stand — there were 13 prisoners. Then death seemed condemned deliverance. And riots raised with the sole purpose — that they were executed.

The natives met the first settlers belligerently: set fire to the grass, threw stones, pushed back from the water sources and hunting grounds. The British response to the reluctance to move out from their native land of local shot.

Many died of hunger and thirst were either killed whitewashed. Many died from diseases introduced by Europeans, to which they had no immunity. Then they moved to the reservation. Often located in areas where life is impossible.

The title of "Australia" for the first time it was mentioned in the book of Captain Flinders Mefyu "Journey to Terra Australis" (which in Latin means "southern land"). The Governor of New South Wales Makkavayri used this title in correspondence with England — and in 1817, he recommended it as an official title. In 1824, the British Admiralty approved the word "Australia" as the official name of the continent.

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