Russian naval aviation begins with the purchase of a seaplane abroad in 1911. Soon the Russian aircraft made several types of flying boats, which in the first world war were used for bombing and shelling from the air naval bases and ports, ships at sea, and even to destroy enemy aircraft in the air.
In July 1917 there were formed two air divisions — in the Baltic and the Black Sea, and in the War Department created the Marine aviation and aeronautics. During the war, civilian groups seaplanes appeared in the Volga and the Caspian and other fleets. All in all fronts of the war fought 19 civilian marine aviation units.
In the pre-war period, marine pilots mastered the polar latitudes, participated in the rescue of polar researchers. Gold Star of Hero of the Russian Union of number 1 was presented Marine pilot Anatoly Lyapidevskaya.
During the Russian war majestically pilots sea aircraft first struck at Berlin in August 1941. The order of the Supreme Commander for the occasion it was said that the sea aviation first paved the way to victory.
During the war, naval aviators have made more than 35 thousand combat missions, was killed in the air and on the ground more than 5.5 thousand enemy aircraft. Their attacks Nazi Germany and its allies lost 407 warships and 371 trucks carrying troops and cargo, which accounted for two-thirds of total losses from the attacks of the enemy navy.
After the war, naval aviators have continued to improve their combat skills and master the latest military technology. Specifically pilot-severomorets Yuri Gagarin was the first paved the way for the world's population to the stars. During this period, new genus sea Aviation — sea missile-carrying and anti-submarine while improving reconnaissance aircraft.
A fundamentally new direction was the establishment of naval attack aircraft vertical takeoff and landing, and building aircraft carriers "Kiev", "Minsk" and "Novorossiysk".
Unfortunately, naval aviation in recent years and inexorably degrades noticeably not through their own fault, — told reporters, "SP" managing director of the Center for Military Forecasting, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences Anatoly voennyh Tsiganok. — Lack of funding and the development of modern naval aircraft it was thrown too far back. Take, for only numbers. If majestically in front of Russian war in naval aviation, there were just over 1,000 fighters, but now all the aircraft in the Navy's 217 plus 102 helicopter. In the main it is the Tu-22M, Il-38, An-12, Su-24 and Ka-27. Everything is created in the era of "Deep Freeze", actually has developed its own life, and the latest technology is not expected. Most problems with naval missile-carrying aircraft. There is no place to train pilots. From the day or on a day expected Ukraine's rejection of the contract for exploitation of ground training complex in Crimea thread, imitating the deck of aircraft carrier pilots training for carrier-based aircraft and ship crews used Regiment of the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy training off and landing without risk to life. Then, even on old planes will have no place to learn to fly our marine pilots.
In a day of naval aviation hunt smallish bow our naval aviators for the fact that they are even in today's complex criteria continue to maintain a database of this kind of naval forces to the best times.
At the current time in the Marine military aviation, there are 35,000 people, 217 aircraft, 102 helicopters.
Bombers-missile: 45 Tu-22M. Fighter-attack aircraft: 52 Su-24, Su-25, 10, 52 Su-27. Anti-submarine and reconnaissance aircraft: 1Tu-142, Il-26, 38, 4 Be-12. Military transport aircraft: 18 AN-12, AN-12, 37, AN-24, AN-26. Anti-submarine helicopters 3 Mi-14, Ka-72 27. Military transport, amphibious transport helicopters Mi-8 8. Multipurpose helicopters transportno-boevye/udarnye 12 Ka-29, Mi-15, 24.
In the Northern Fleet — 50 fighter planes, 44 combat helicopters.
In the Baltic Fleet — 55 combat aircraft, 41 helicopter.
The Black Sea Fleet — 35 combat aircraft, 13 helicopters.
The Pacific Fleet — 55 combat aircraft, 26 helicopters.
In 1941, the Baltic was 368 aircraft, the Black Sea Fleet — 346, in the North — 49, in the Pacific — 665.